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Can we smell in dreams?

Can we smell in dreams?

I'm interested in whether people can smell in their dreams. Do people really experience smell in their dreams? For example, if I dream of smelling a flower, will I feel the smell, too?

Is there any research on whether people can smell in dreams?


Antonio, Nielsen and Doneri (1998) provide one assessment of self-reported prevalence of smell in dreams. To quote the abstract (my bolding):

Although numerous studies have investigated the content of laboratory and home dream reports, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of various sensory modes in dreams. 49 men and 115 women completed a battery of questionnaires and kept a home dream diary for two to three consecutive weeks. Retrospective responses to the questionnaire indicate that approximately 33 % of men and 40% of women recalled having experienced sensations of smell or taste in their dreams. A total of 3372 dream reports were collected and scored for unambiguous references to auditory, olfactory, and gustatory experiences. Auditory experiences were reported in approximately 53% of all dream reports. Olfactory and gustatory sensations occurred in approximatdy 1 % of all dream reports. A significantly greater percentage of women than men reported one or more dreams containing references to olfactory sensations. The results lend support to previous studies which have shown that a variety of sensory experiences, although relatively rare, can occur in dreams.

There is still the question about whether self-reports are trustworthy, and how you define a smell experience in a dream that is most likely not generated by external stimuli. Antonio and colleagues go on to discuss some of these issues:

That the more infrequent modalities of smell and taste occur at all in dream reports is an important indication of the representational capacities of dreaming-and probably of imagery more generally. The finding is consistent with recent research showing the existence of imagery in both olfactory (Carrasco & Ridout, 1997; Lyman & McDaniel, 1986) and gustatory (Drummond, 1995) modalities. Although some researchers take the position that olfactory imagery is not possible (Herz & Engen, 1996), the spontaneous occurrence of olfactory imagery in dreams may differ from "willful" olfactory imagery that may occur upon instruction during the waking state. For instance, limbic structures which might yield such spontaneous occurrences during dreams may not be operational during the waking state. Nevertheless, it is likely that the relatively rare occurrence of these modalities during dreaming is not because their representation is beyond imaginal capacity. Rather, either such sensations are not usually spontaneously generated during dreaming, i.e., are not a necessary component of dreaming's supposed memory/adaptational functions, or they depend upon external sensory stimuli to trigger them. However, sensory triggers may be selectively blocked at the thalamic level by the raised afferent thresholds of REM sleep (e.g., Steriade, 1994). Of course, both of these inhibiting conditions may be true, thereby seriously disfavoring appearance of gustatory or olfactory sensations during dreaming

References

  • ANTONIO, L.Z. and Nielsen, T.A. and Donderi, DC. (1998). Prevalence of auditory, olfactory, and gustatory experiences in home dreams. Perceptual and motor skills, 87, 3, 819-826.PDF
  • Carrasco, M., & Ridout, J. B. (1997) Olfactory perception and olfactory imagery: a multidimensional analysis. Journal 0f Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 19,287-30l.
  • Drummond, P. D. (1995) Effect of imagining and actually tasting a sour taste on one side of the tongue. Physiology & Behavior, 57, 373-376.
  • Herz, R. S, & Engen, T. (1996) Odor memory: review and analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 300-313
  • Lyman, B. J., & McDaniel. M. A. (1986) Effects of encoding strategy on long-term memory for odours. Human memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: A-Human Experimental Psychology, 38(4-A), 753-765.
  • Steriade, M. (1994) Brain electrical activity and sensory processing during waking and sleep states. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine. (2nd ed.) Philadelphia, FA: Saunders. pp. 105-124.

Also, in Oliver Sack's The Man Who Mistook His For His Wife, the author and famous neurologist reports a case about a man who dreamed he had the olfactory powers of a dog; however, when he awoke, he still retained his heightened sense of smell and furthermore could prove it to the nurses.

Any experience that one has in waking life can be recapitulated during a dream. In addition, Anthony Wagner has a line of research investigating how rehearsal and learning mechanisms operate during sleep. It is unclear at this point how much novel learning can occur during sleep, as no paradigm has demonstrated this very successfully.


I had a novel dreaming experience last night that led me to this website. I was having a dream revolving around plastic waste! I think this was recapitulating a discussion my wife and I had recently had about the problems of coping with the changing rules and options for dealing with domestic recycling of plastic. The content of the dream seems trivial and disorganized now, but one component was vivid and unusual.

In the dream, I set fire to some plastic waste and smelled an acrid, unpleasant odor of burning plastic. The odor sensation was VERY vivid, almost overpowering. Immediately upon registering this odor sensation, I began to be aware of the rousing of my "conscious", rational mind, which was immediately gripped by the thought of "FIRE!".

I awoke with a start and with the thought that something was burning in the house. However, after a breath two of air passed through my nose, I calmed down, as the air in my bedroom was clear and odor free. The sensation had been so vivid, however, that I could not get back to sleep until I had roused myself and walked around a bit to assure myself that nothing was burning, and that there was no lingering scent of burning plastic in my house.

I can't say that I can recall ever experiencing such a vivid odor, indeed ANY vivid odor, in a dream before this.


Psychic Smelling – Smelling Things That Aren’t There

Even before I knew anything about psychic abilities and that everyone had them I experienced many things others say they experienced. Seeing shadows and figures out my peripheral vision, always hearing noises in the house it seemed no one else heard, just knowing things, even being able to communicate with my cat (long story and I was young. I just thought it was novel and that my cat was extra special for some reason lol), and of course I was hyper-super-over-the-top-sensitive. Since young I also experienced De-Ja-Vu on such a frequent basis that it actually started to bother me…I thought I was losing it! In my 30’s is when I began smelling things. I would ask everyone in the room “Do you smell that?” I was so often smelling things that weren’t there. Everything from the scent of fresh baked cookies, flowers/roses, cigar smoke, men’scolonge, etc. I came to actually enjoy the smell of that man. lol. It reminded me of dating a good smelling man and I liked that thought. lol.

After awakening to my abilities I began smelling things more often. Often when typing someone a message I would start to smell something. To cut to the chase my goal is to be well rounded as far as my psychic abilities are concerned so my goal is to develop all clair’s. Clairolfaction and how it worked eluded me however. I found no information on the web and I had searched and searched. I was told to ask for help. That is what I did. I asked God to send me help. That same night the help came while I was still searching the web for information (yes, I don’t give up easily or admit defeat…I am a beat a dead horse type of person. lol) Suddenly the idea popped in my head to ask my boyfriend to put something in his desk and I would try to smell it and guess what it was. I immediately thought “why would I think to do that, he is hardly at his office and will think I am nuts with such a request.” Then I heard “Trigger.” That was it. I need a trigger to practice clairolfaction instead of just saying to my guide let me smell this or that to practice. I tried that…it did not work.

This is what I did that did work…

I found pictures on the web of various things. Fruit, bread, pizza, horses/stable, coffee, cigar, cookies, etc. I was on a diet at the time and as I was practicing I realized that smelling pizza wasn’t the best idea. lol.

Looking at the picture I asked “What is it, let me smell it?” Then I relax while also focusing slightly on my root chakra. Clairolfaction is controlled by the root chakra so you really should have opened, cleared and balanced your root chakra. Actually all your chakras should be opened, cleared and balanced before working on development or else I tend to think it would be slightly like beating your head against the wall because you may or may not be able to perform based on blocks to your chakra(s).

Next I just take my time, breath normal. Don’t do what I use to do and breath physically so deeply to the point of almost passing out because you are not using your physical sense of smell even though when the room fills with the smell of cookies you would swear you are smelling it with your physical nose. Don’t pass out! lol. Take you time because I find that often I smell when I am in a relaxed state and not expecting to smell anything or focused on smelling anything. So if you try and try and nothing happens…sit back, relax, watch a little tv to take your focus off trying to smell, and just let it happen.

Don’t worry if some times it just won’t happen, that’s okay. It happens and is normal when developing for it to be sporadic. Remember the reason for developing is to gain control…so you don’t have control yet so some times it just won’t happen. Go on to the next picture or take a break and come back to practicing later.

Some key things to be aware of are the smells in your home/environment. You need to know if you smell lavender that it is your psychic sense and not that glade air freshener oil warmer you have pulled in. Are your windows open. You need to make sure the smells are not coming from some where else. Like I have done in the past, if you smell smoke, natural gas, etc. it is okay to go check it out and I would recommend it. After all you have to gain trust in your abilities so go check out that smell and you will know that it is your psychic sense.

Your probably also wondering what about when you have no idea what your smelling. That is where developing more than one abilities comes in handy so not to worry. Most often when I smell something it is an additional clue to what I have already got using my clairsentience, just knowing and clairaudience. The goal is to use one sense in conjunction with another. Working together like that you probably will know what that smell is or what it reminds you of which is usually right. Remember to note the first thing that comes to you…what did you first think that smell was? Or who did the smell remind you of right off? Did you get some other thought or impression when you smelled it? Don’t discount anything…not if you want to develop. And…just tell the person what you recieved or describe the smell as best you can because possibly they will know.watch full War for the Planet of the Apes film online

My last tip…often your friends will not want to play guess that smell with you. lol. My best friend say that when her husband asks her to play that game the smells are not to pleasant smelling. lol.

Okay…here’s some general information about Clairolfaction:

A person with the ability of clairolfaction doesn’t smell the normal smells that are present in general, but smells energies. These energies are transformed into smell in the nose. The person does smell something that most other people do not smell at the same place. The origin of the energy that is smelt isn’t always known. The body or a part of the body (also each organ or tumour) is emitting energy (in the aura/energy field of the person), what can be received by a person with the ability of clairolfaction. Not only the body or parts of the body are emitting energy, but everything does do that.
Someone who is clairolfaction, smells often only a part or some of the possibilities below. Besides the ways of clairolfaction mentioned below, there are also other possibilities.

What possibilities do exist?
· Smelling diseases
· Smelling shortages
· Smelling the smell of a dead person
· Smelling a smell of someone who is going to die
· Smelling that something isn’t good/healthy for you
· Smelling things you see
· Other?
· Smelling diseases

When a person with the clairolfaction ability smells a disease by a person or animal, the person smells the (negative) energy that is emanated by the sick organ. Because every disease emanates a different energy, the kind of disease can be recognized. When you smell a disease for the first time it would be difficult to determine what it is.

It is well-known that dogs can trace cancer by humans. These dogs are clairolfaction.
· Smelling shortages
Every person needs his own basic quantity of food, if the body or mind don’t want getting trouble. The quantity and composition of the basic quantity differs from person to person. Each person needs other products. Nobody is the same. The body will function worse with shortages and with to much of certain food. the energy that is needed of a certain product (for example a specific vegetable or fruit) will be present in the aura of a person. The paranormal person can possible smell this emanation in the aura, and the nose of that person will transform the energy of the shortage in a certain smell of a certain product. What rests is a right interpretation what is meant with the smell.
It also occurs that if someone is smelling a product, it means that someone has to much energy of that product in his body and must not eat to much of it.
· Smelling the smell of a dead person
Every person has a certain smell with himself. People love also some particular smell. When spirits are present in a room, they can make themselves known by a smell. This smell can be connected to a person that past away that loved or had that smell. This smell can’t be detected by ‘normal’ noses.
· Smelling a smell of someone who is going to die
Some people with the ability of clairolfaction can sense the ‘smell of death’. In the days/weeks/months before a person is dying, the energetic body of the person is coming apart from the physical body. With this process some energy comes free, which can be received in the nose which translates it in a unique smell. Other people do not sense this smell. The person who is going to die, appears to have this smell with him.
· Smelling that something isn’t good/healthy for you
Another possible ability of clairolfaction is smelling of something is healthy to eat or not. For example pâté, this has a very specific smell. When the pâté smells different by clairolfaction, it is known the pâté isn’t healthy to eat anymore. Another person, who doesn’t have clairolfaction, just smells and doesn’t find anything strange or wrong about it. The person with clairolfaction ability gets the smell of the product in the nose. With this smell the person also gets the energy of the product in the nose. In this way the person smells the energy of the product.
· Smelling things you see
Another possible characteristic that a person with the ability of clairolfaction can have is that he smells the smell of something he sees. For example when he watches television and sees the pictures of a stable, he smells the horses. Pictures of seawater and he smells the sea. Or if a person is seen, the smell of the person is smelled in the noise. And so on.


Rose-tinted dreams

All subjects reported a positive dream experience when stimulated by the rose smell, and most experienced the opposite when exposed to the rotten eggs. Stuck says the smells influence the “emotional colouration” of the dream.

The team are now looking to recruit people who suffer from nightmares to see if exposure to smells can help make their dreams more pleasant.

“The relationship between external stimuli and dreaming is something we are all at some level aware of,” says Irshaad Ebrahim of The London Sleep Centre. “This initial research is a step in the direction towards clarifying these questions and may well lead to therapeutic benefits.”

Stuck is presenting his work on Sunday at the American Academy of Otolaryngology’s annual meeting in Chicago.

The Human Brain – With one hundred billion nerve cells, the complexity is mind-boggling. Learn more in our cutting edge special report.


How Smell Works

Smell is often our first response to stimuli. It alerts us to fire before we see flames. It makes us recoil before we taste rotten food. But although smell is a basic sense, it's also at the forefront of neurological research. Scientists are still exploring how, precisely, we pick up odorants, process them and interpret them as smells. Why are researchers, perfumers, developers and even government agencies so curious about smell? What makes a seemingly rudimentary sense so tantalizing?

Smell, like taste, is a chemical sense detected by sensory cells called chemoreceptors. When an odorant stimulates the chemoreceptors in the nose that detect smell, they pass on electrical impulses to the brain. The brain then interprets patterns in electrical activity as specific odors and olfactory sensation becomes perception -- something we can recognize as smell. The only other chemical system that can quickly identify, make sense of and memorize new molecules is the immune system.

But smell, more so than any other sense, is also intimately linked to the parts of the brain that process emotion and associative learning. The olfactory bulb in the brain, which sorts sensation into perception, is part of the limbic system -- a system that includes the amygdala and hippocampus, structures vital to our behavior, mood and memory. This link to brain's emotional center makes smell a fascinating frontier in neuroscience, behavioral science and advertising.

In this article, we'll explore how humans perceive smell, how it triggers memory and the interesting (and sometimes unusual) ways to manipulate odor and olfactory perception.


Have you ever smelled something in a dream?

The human brain is often cited as one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery, and never does this resonate more with me than right after I wake up from a particularly intense, and peculiar, dream. We spend almost half our lives asleep, but it seems like most of what happens in our heads during that time is a mystery you can't record dreams, just as you can't photograph thoughts, and memory for such things -- mine especially, even just after waking -- is such a fickle thing.

We discussed here a few months ago the great importance that the olfactory sense has to emotion, and certain kinds of memory:

Smell is the sense most closely associated with emotional memory — just think about how evocative certain scents can be — and the one most closely tied to mental health and happiness. Positive and negative associations with certain smells are locked into our brains from an early age and stick with us the rest of our lives, and to lose that sense of smell is to, in effect, lose a part of our memory. It's the subtlest of the senses, but perhaps the most crucial in terms of our emotional connection to the world.

This seems like such a basic, caveman kind of question to be asking about the nature of ourselves -- but then, that's exactly why the brain still looms as an important frontier -- and it's this: if smells are so important to our emotional connection to the world, and dreams can be so very emotional, why aren't smells more prominent in dreams?

Think about it -- when the last time you remember having smelled something in a dream? (For me, the answer is . never.) There are some accounts of "olfactory dreams," like this one from Freud's Interpretation of Dreams:

Eau de Cologne was held to his nostrils. He found himself in Cairo, in the shop of Johann Maria Farina. This was followed by fantastic adventures which he was not able to recall.

. or this one from a study conducted at Wellesley College in 1901:

I dreamed of looking off toward Milton and saying that beyond lay the ocean. I immediately got the keenest and most natural smell of wind from the flats and the delicious ocean odor. This gave me such intense pleasure, as it always does, that I awoke.

But strangely enough, sleep researchers contend that the other senses have a much greater impact on dreams -- the sound of a buzzer could easily induce a sleeper to dream of a buzzer -- and olfactory dreams are rare. (It makes me think of watching movies -- the closest thing to dreaming while awake -- and how dependent they are on the aural and visual, and how strange it would be if "smell-o-vision" were the norm.)

But our faithful readers always seem to have such interesting and diverse experiences when it comes to dreams, I'll bet there are some of you out there who've had smell dreams. Or who've had dreams influenced by smells that wafted over them while sleeping. If so, do tell!


Smell and Emotion

In addition to being the sense most closely linked to memory, smell is also highly emotive. The perfume industry is built around this connection, with perfumers developing fragrances that seek to convey a vast array of emotions and feelings from desire to power, vitality to relaxation.

On a more personal level, smell is extremely important when it comes to attraction between two people. Research has shown that our body odour, produced by the genes which make up our immune system, can help us subconsciously choose our partners – read more here. Kissing is thought by some scientists to have developed from sniffing that first kiss being essentially a primal behaviour during which we smell and taste our partner to decide if they are a match.

It is likely that much of our emotional response to smell is governed by association, something which is borne out by the fact that different people can have completely different perceptions of the same smell. Take perfume for example one person may find a particular brand ‘powerful’, ‘aromatic’ and ‘heady’, with another describing it as ‘overpowering’, ‘sickly’ and ‘nauseating’. Despite this, however, there are certain smells that all humans find repugnant, largely because they warn us of danger the smell of smoke, for example, or of rotten food. This is explored in more detail on the Danger! page.


The importance of B.O.

One important finding by olfaction researchers is that odors aren’t all created equal. Some scents are actually processed differently by the brain.

Body odors, in particular, seem to belong to a class all their own. In a study published in Cerebral Cortex (Vol. 18, No. 6), Lundstrom found that the brain relies on different regions to process body odors versus other everyday scents. He used positron emission tomography scans to peer at women’s brains as they sniffed the armpits of T-shirts that had been slept in overnight by volunteers. They also smelled shirts infused with a fake body odor scent.

The test subjects couldn’t consciously tell which samples were real and which were fake. Yet the scans showed that true body odor scents fired up different brain pathways than artificial odors. Genuine body odors actually deactivated areas near the secondary olfactory cortex, Lundstrom says, and instead lit up several brain regions typically used not in olfaction, but in recognizing familiar and fearful stimuli. “It seems that body odors are processed by a sub-network in the brain, and not mainly by the main olfactory system,” Lundstrom says.

Back in the ancient, pre-Speed Stick era, sizing up body odors was critical for choosing mates and recognizing kin. “We believe that throughout evolution, these body odors have been tagged as important stimuli, so they’ve been given dedicated neural networks to process them,” he says.

Here too, however, there are individual differences in a person’s sensitivity to body odors. And sensitivity to these important odors may actually lay the groundwork for social communication. Denise Chen, PhD, a psychologist at Rice University, performed a version of the sweaty T-shirt test, which she published in Psychological Science (Vol. 20, No. 9). She asked each female subject to sniff three shirts — two worn by strangers, and one worn by the subject’s roommate. Chen found that women who correctly picked out their roommate’s scent scored higher on tests of emotional sensitivity. “Those people who are more sensitive to social smells are also more sensitive to emotional signals,” she concludes.


How to Employ Scent Marketing

Lean on Scent Research

Your shop may not have the resources of Nike or Singapore Airlines to craft custom scents with industry behemoth ScentAir, but that doesn’t mean you can’t benefit from the research and development that the big guys funded. Read up on studies that reveal cues on how scents can help to attract the right demographic for your products and services. Some interesting takeaways from ScentAir research include:

  • Well-received ambient scents can positively influence purchase behavior if the scent seems to match the products in the store.
  • The opposite is true if the scent doesn’t seem to match the context of the shop consumers may turn away from the retail space (so pick a scent that makes sense for your brand).
  • Gender-designed scents seem to matter as well. A “feminine” scent in a women’s clothing store helps create positive purchase intent.
  • Once again, the reverse is true if the scent doesn’t seem to match the gender of the SKUs. The same study acknowledges that this is why department stores often incorporate different scents in various areas of the stores, depending on the product focus.
  • Keep the season in mind when creating scentscapes. In December, peppering stores with scents that remind consumers of Christmas while playing Christmas music produces positive consumer outcomes. There are a few things at play here, including the right context and making use of multiple human senses at once, to reinforce the brand.

The Monell Center also offers deep research on human senses for retailers who'd like to do further reading on the topic.

Opt for Ambience

Our brains process scents subconsciously first, so low-key scents are actually high impact. After you’ve chosen a scent, think of its placement in your retail space as a background element. A subtle scent will reduce customer friction, improve their perception of quality, and align nicely with how human brains process smells.

Some retailers, like Abercrombie & Fitch and LUSH, go against the grain of this best practice. Both retailers feature powerful (overpowering to some) scents in their stores. These brands are employing a strategy called “billboard scents,” because the distinctive smells they’ve chosen to associate with their brand are as in-your-face as a billboard. They’ve done so deliberately because their market research reveals that their target demographics are largely in-tune to those scents, but the strategy also has challenges.

Scents are highly subjective and deliberately inundating customers with a scent they may dislike, or have an allergic reaction to, can turn them away from your shop or toe the line of nuisance/pollution and put a company at risk of facing legal issues.

This is why only a handful of companies use the billboard scent strategy. If you’re a newbie retailer, it’s one you should avoid. Professor Spagenberg of Washing State University’s scent research advises: “Scent should stay in the background — pleasant, but not distracting.”


Can we smell in dreams? - Psychology

Vision and hearing have received an incredible amount of attention from researchers over the years. While there is still much to be learned about how these sensory systems work, we have a much better understanding of them than of our other sensory modalities. In this section, we will explore our chemical senses (taste and smell) and our body senses (touch, temperature, pain, balance, and body position).

Learning Objectives

  • Summarize the chemical process of taste and smell
  • Explain the receptors that respond to touch

What are the effects of breaking social norms?

Breaking social norms can make you a hero or an outcast. Many admire individuality, and breaking a small social norm can get you noticed. Breaking social norms has no legal recourse and social norms change with time. But there always exists consequences for breaking social norms. A person may face ostracization from society. In history, this was a literal removal or banishment of the person from the society. Today ostracization may not be geographical. When you break social norms, people stop associating with you. You may lose your job. You can get sent out of a homeowners association or other group. You end up alone. Because society is not comfortable with your behavior, many will refuse to associate.

Here are some everyday norms you have been following without even noticing.

Chewing with your mouth closed.

This is a considered an important social norm. Many consider it bad manners to see people chewing with their mouths open. It is quite disgusting to see the half-eaten remnants of another human&rsquos meal. We bet You didn&rsquot know this was a social norm and we bet you have been chewing with your mouth closed.

Unpleasant odors

It is an important social norm to take precautions so that you don&rsquot offend anyone with the way you smell. When out in public, be sure to wear clothing that is clean and fresh [1] . Wear deodorant to prevent body odor s. If you are the type that grow beard, endeavor to take care of it. If you wear a perfume or cologne, be sure to only use a very small amount to prevent the scent being overwhelming. Do not expel gas in public either [2] . If you must do so, find a public restroom. Brush your teeth to freshen your breath before leaving home. Now, we are sure you do these every day.

Appropriate Dressing

It is important that you dress in a way that is appropriate for the place that you are going. If you are going to an event where people dress in a formal or a semi-formal way, do the same. For example, do not wear blue jeans and a t-shirt to a cocktail party. Do not dress in a vulgar manner. But, if you are going to a museum or a movie theater, it is acceptable to dress in a casual way. In other words, try and dress the way you think others will dress at the place you are going.

Watch what you say in public

When you are out where there are a lot of people within ear-shot and eye-shot, mind your verbal and non-verbal communication. Swear words are inappropriate in public. Do not use words which may offend other people, especially when there are children around. Do not argue in public and do not say things that could be critical. Refrain from doing things like pointing at people and using rude hand gestures.

Phone etiquette

For mobile phone usage, here are some acceptable norms. Say hello when answering and goodbye when you hang up [3] . Reply to all texts and voice mails. Do not refuse to take a message. Do not lie if someone has the wrong number. Do not tell telemarketers you will call them back. Do not pretend you are an answering machine (that&rsquos horrible).

When in elevator

For Elevators, Nod or say hello to others on the elevator. Face the front. Never push extra buttons, only the one for your floor. Do not go elevator surfing. Never stand right by someone if you are the only two people on board. Do not say &ldquoI&rsquoll wait for the next one&rdquo if only one person is on board.

Norms about public behavior

Shake hands when you meet someone. Have direct eye contact with the person you are speaking with. Consume alcohol in moderation. Unless the movie theater&rsquos filled up, never sit right next to someone. Do not stand close enough to someone to touch arms or hips. Do not curse in polite conversation. Do not pick your nose. Wear clothing, especially of a similar style that others wear. Say please and thank you. Be kind to the elderly, like opening a door or giving up your seat. Go to the back of the line. Don&rsquot invade someone&rsquos personal space. When at someone&rsquos home, ask permission, such as turning on the television or using the bathroom. Stop at a red light. Go at a green light. Pull over for emergency vehicles. Drive on the right side of the road in the United States. Do not be promiscuous. Try to avoid burping or farting in public. Flush the toilet. Say &ldquoplease&rdquo when asking for something. Say &ldquothank you&rdquo when someone does something for you. Call to let someone know you will be late.

I bet you have been following these norms every day without even noticing.


Can we smell in dreams? - Psychology

Vision and hearing have received an incredible amount of attention from researchers over the years. While there is still much to be learned about how these sensory systems work, we have a much better understanding of them than of our other sensory modalities. In this section, we will explore our chemical senses (taste and smell) and our body senses (touch, temperature, pain, balance, and body position).

Learning Objectives

  • Summarize the chemical process of taste and smell
  • Explain the receptors that respond to touch

Psychic Smelling – Smelling Things That Aren’t There

Even before I knew anything about psychic abilities and that everyone had them I experienced many things others say they experienced. Seeing shadows and figures out my peripheral vision, always hearing noises in the house it seemed no one else heard, just knowing things, even being able to communicate with my cat (long story and I was young. I just thought it was novel and that my cat was extra special for some reason lol), and of course I was hyper-super-over-the-top-sensitive. Since young I also experienced De-Ja-Vu on such a frequent basis that it actually started to bother me…I thought I was losing it! In my 30’s is when I began smelling things. I would ask everyone in the room “Do you smell that?” I was so often smelling things that weren’t there. Everything from the scent of fresh baked cookies, flowers/roses, cigar smoke, men’scolonge, etc. I came to actually enjoy the smell of that man. lol. It reminded me of dating a good smelling man and I liked that thought. lol.

After awakening to my abilities I began smelling things more often. Often when typing someone a message I would start to smell something. To cut to the chase my goal is to be well rounded as far as my psychic abilities are concerned so my goal is to develop all clair’s. Clairolfaction and how it worked eluded me however. I found no information on the web and I had searched and searched. I was told to ask for help. That is what I did. I asked God to send me help. That same night the help came while I was still searching the web for information (yes, I don’t give up easily or admit defeat…I am a beat a dead horse type of person. lol) Suddenly the idea popped in my head to ask my boyfriend to put something in his desk and I would try to smell it and guess what it was. I immediately thought “why would I think to do that, he is hardly at his office and will think I am nuts with such a request.” Then I heard “Trigger.” That was it. I need a trigger to practice clairolfaction instead of just saying to my guide let me smell this or that to practice. I tried that…it did not work.

This is what I did that did work…

I found pictures on the web of various things. Fruit, bread, pizza, horses/stable, coffee, cigar, cookies, etc. I was on a diet at the time and as I was practicing I realized that smelling pizza wasn’t the best idea. lol.

Looking at the picture I asked “What is it, let me smell it?” Then I relax while also focusing slightly on my root chakra. Clairolfaction is controlled by the root chakra so you really should have opened, cleared and balanced your root chakra. Actually all your chakras should be opened, cleared and balanced before working on development or else I tend to think it would be slightly like beating your head against the wall because you may or may not be able to perform based on blocks to your chakra(s).

Next I just take my time, breath normal. Don’t do what I use to do and breath physically so deeply to the point of almost passing out because you are not using your physical sense of smell even though when the room fills with the smell of cookies you would swear you are smelling it with your physical nose. Don’t pass out! lol. Take you time because I find that often I smell when I am in a relaxed state and not expecting to smell anything or focused on smelling anything. So if you try and try and nothing happens…sit back, relax, watch a little tv to take your focus off trying to smell, and just let it happen.

Don’t worry if some times it just won’t happen, that’s okay. It happens and is normal when developing for it to be sporadic. Remember the reason for developing is to gain control…so you don’t have control yet so some times it just won’t happen. Go on to the next picture or take a break and come back to practicing later.

Some key things to be aware of are the smells in your home/environment. You need to know if you smell lavender that it is your psychic sense and not that glade air freshener oil warmer you have pulled in. Are your windows open. You need to make sure the smells are not coming from some where else. Like I have done in the past, if you smell smoke, natural gas, etc. it is okay to go check it out and I would recommend it. After all you have to gain trust in your abilities so go check out that smell and you will know that it is your psychic sense.

Your probably also wondering what about when you have no idea what your smelling. That is where developing more than one abilities comes in handy so not to worry. Most often when I smell something it is an additional clue to what I have already got using my clairsentience, just knowing and clairaudience. The goal is to use one sense in conjunction with another. Working together like that you probably will know what that smell is or what it reminds you of which is usually right. Remember to note the first thing that comes to you…what did you first think that smell was? Or who did the smell remind you of right off? Did you get some other thought or impression when you smelled it? Don’t discount anything…not if you want to develop. And…just tell the person what you recieved or describe the smell as best you can because possibly they will know.watch full War for the Planet of the Apes film online

My last tip…often your friends will not want to play guess that smell with you. lol. My best friend say that when her husband asks her to play that game the smells are not to pleasant smelling. lol.

Okay…here’s some general information about Clairolfaction:

A person with the ability of clairolfaction doesn’t smell the normal smells that are present in general, but smells energies. These energies are transformed into smell in the nose. The person does smell something that most other people do not smell at the same place. The origin of the energy that is smelt isn’t always known. The body or a part of the body (also each organ or tumour) is emitting energy (in the aura/energy field of the person), what can be received by a person with the ability of clairolfaction. Not only the body or parts of the body are emitting energy, but everything does do that.
Someone who is clairolfaction, smells often only a part or some of the possibilities below. Besides the ways of clairolfaction mentioned below, there are also other possibilities.

What possibilities do exist?
· Smelling diseases
· Smelling shortages
· Smelling the smell of a dead person
· Smelling a smell of someone who is going to die
· Smelling that something isn’t good/healthy for you
· Smelling things you see
· Other?
· Smelling diseases

When a person with the clairolfaction ability smells a disease by a person or animal, the person smells the (negative) energy that is emanated by the sick organ. Because every disease emanates a different energy, the kind of disease can be recognized. When you smell a disease for the first time it would be difficult to determine what it is.

It is well-known that dogs can trace cancer by humans. These dogs are clairolfaction.
· Smelling shortages
Every person needs his own basic quantity of food, if the body or mind don’t want getting trouble. The quantity and composition of the basic quantity differs from person to person. Each person needs other products. Nobody is the same. The body will function worse with shortages and with to much of certain food. the energy that is needed of a certain product (for example a specific vegetable or fruit) will be present in the aura of a person. The paranormal person can possible smell this emanation in the aura, and the nose of that person will transform the energy of the shortage in a certain smell of a certain product. What rests is a right interpretation what is meant with the smell.
It also occurs that if someone is smelling a product, it means that someone has to much energy of that product in his body and must not eat to much of it.
· Smelling the smell of a dead person
Every person has a certain smell with himself. People love also some particular smell. When spirits are present in a room, they can make themselves known by a smell. This smell can be connected to a person that past away that loved or had that smell. This smell can’t be detected by ‘normal’ noses.
· Smelling a smell of someone who is going to die
Some people with the ability of clairolfaction can sense the ‘smell of death’. In the days/weeks/months before a person is dying, the energetic body of the person is coming apart from the physical body. With this process some energy comes free, which can be received in the nose which translates it in a unique smell. Other people do not sense this smell. The person who is going to die, appears to have this smell with him.
· Smelling that something isn’t good/healthy for you
Another possible ability of clairolfaction is smelling of something is healthy to eat or not. For example pâté, this has a very specific smell. When the pâté smells different by clairolfaction, it is known the pâté isn’t healthy to eat anymore. Another person, who doesn’t have clairolfaction, just smells and doesn’t find anything strange or wrong about it. The person with clairolfaction ability gets the smell of the product in the nose. With this smell the person also gets the energy of the product in the nose. In this way the person smells the energy of the product.
· Smelling things you see
Another possible characteristic that a person with the ability of clairolfaction can have is that he smells the smell of something he sees. For example when he watches television and sees the pictures of a stable, he smells the horses. Pictures of seawater and he smells the sea. Or if a person is seen, the smell of the person is smelled in the noise. And so on.


How to Employ Scent Marketing

Lean on Scent Research

Your shop may not have the resources of Nike or Singapore Airlines to craft custom scents with industry behemoth ScentAir, but that doesn’t mean you can’t benefit from the research and development that the big guys funded. Read up on studies that reveal cues on how scents can help to attract the right demographic for your products and services. Some interesting takeaways from ScentAir research include:

  • Well-received ambient scents can positively influence purchase behavior if the scent seems to match the products in the store.
  • The opposite is true if the scent doesn’t seem to match the context of the shop consumers may turn away from the retail space (so pick a scent that makes sense for your brand).
  • Gender-designed scents seem to matter as well. A “feminine” scent in a women’s clothing store helps create positive purchase intent.
  • Once again, the reverse is true if the scent doesn’t seem to match the gender of the SKUs. The same study acknowledges that this is why department stores often incorporate different scents in various areas of the stores, depending on the product focus.
  • Keep the season in mind when creating scentscapes. In December, peppering stores with scents that remind consumers of Christmas while playing Christmas music produces positive consumer outcomes. There are a few things at play here, including the right context and making use of multiple human senses at once, to reinforce the brand.

The Monell Center also offers deep research on human senses for retailers who'd like to do further reading on the topic.

Opt for Ambience

Our brains process scents subconsciously first, so low-key scents are actually high impact. After you’ve chosen a scent, think of its placement in your retail space as a background element. A subtle scent will reduce customer friction, improve their perception of quality, and align nicely with how human brains process smells.

Some retailers, like Abercrombie & Fitch and LUSH, go against the grain of this best practice. Both retailers feature powerful (overpowering to some) scents in their stores. These brands are employing a strategy called “billboard scents,” because the distinctive smells they’ve chosen to associate with their brand are as in-your-face as a billboard. They’ve done so deliberately because their market research reveals that their target demographics are largely in-tune to those scents, but the strategy also has challenges.

Scents are highly subjective and deliberately inundating customers with a scent they may dislike, or have an allergic reaction to, can turn them away from your shop or toe the line of nuisance/pollution and put a company at risk of facing legal issues.

This is why only a handful of companies use the billboard scent strategy. If you’re a newbie retailer, it’s one you should avoid. Professor Spagenberg of Washing State University’s scent research advises: “Scent should stay in the background — pleasant, but not distracting.”


Smell and Emotion

In addition to being the sense most closely linked to memory, smell is also highly emotive. The perfume industry is built around this connection, with perfumers developing fragrances that seek to convey a vast array of emotions and feelings from desire to power, vitality to relaxation.

On a more personal level, smell is extremely important when it comes to attraction between two people. Research has shown that our body odour, produced by the genes which make up our immune system, can help us subconsciously choose our partners – read more here. Kissing is thought by some scientists to have developed from sniffing that first kiss being essentially a primal behaviour during which we smell and taste our partner to decide if they are a match.

It is likely that much of our emotional response to smell is governed by association, something which is borne out by the fact that different people can have completely different perceptions of the same smell. Take perfume for example one person may find a particular brand ‘powerful’, ‘aromatic’ and ‘heady’, with another describing it as ‘overpowering’, ‘sickly’ and ‘nauseating’. Despite this, however, there are certain smells that all humans find repugnant, largely because they warn us of danger the smell of smoke, for example, or of rotten food. This is explored in more detail on the Danger! page.


How Smell Works

Smell is often our first response to stimuli. It alerts us to fire before we see flames. It makes us recoil before we taste rotten food. But although smell is a basic sense, it's also at the forefront of neurological research. Scientists are still exploring how, precisely, we pick up odorants, process them and interpret them as smells. Why are researchers, perfumers, developers and even government agencies so curious about smell? What makes a seemingly rudimentary sense so tantalizing?

Smell, like taste, is a chemical sense detected by sensory cells called chemoreceptors. When an odorant stimulates the chemoreceptors in the nose that detect smell, they pass on electrical impulses to the brain. The brain then interprets patterns in electrical activity as specific odors and olfactory sensation becomes perception -- something we can recognize as smell. The only other chemical system that can quickly identify, make sense of and memorize new molecules is the immune system.

But smell, more so than any other sense, is also intimately linked to the parts of the brain that process emotion and associative learning. The olfactory bulb in the brain, which sorts sensation into perception, is part of the limbic system -- a system that includes the amygdala and hippocampus, structures vital to our behavior, mood and memory. This link to brain's emotional center makes smell a fascinating frontier in neuroscience, behavioral science and advertising.

In this article, we'll explore how humans perceive smell, how it triggers memory and the interesting (and sometimes unusual) ways to manipulate odor and olfactory perception.


What are the effects of breaking social norms?

Breaking social norms can make you a hero or an outcast. Many admire individuality, and breaking a small social norm can get you noticed. Breaking social norms has no legal recourse and social norms change with time. But there always exists consequences for breaking social norms. A person may face ostracization from society. In history, this was a literal removal or banishment of the person from the society. Today ostracization may not be geographical. When you break social norms, people stop associating with you. You may lose your job. You can get sent out of a homeowners association or other group. You end up alone. Because society is not comfortable with your behavior, many will refuse to associate.

Here are some everyday norms you have been following without even noticing.

Chewing with your mouth closed.

This is a considered an important social norm. Many consider it bad manners to see people chewing with their mouths open. It is quite disgusting to see the half-eaten remnants of another human&rsquos meal. We bet You didn&rsquot know this was a social norm and we bet you have been chewing with your mouth closed.

Unpleasant odors

It is an important social norm to take precautions so that you don&rsquot offend anyone with the way you smell. When out in public, be sure to wear clothing that is clean and fresh [1] . Wear deodorant to prevent body odor s. If you are the type that grow beard, endeavor to take care of it. If you wear a perfume or cologne, be sure to only use a very small amount to prevent the scent being overwhelming. Do not expel gas in public either [2] . If you must do so, find a public restroom. Brush your teeth to freshen your breath before leaving home. Now, we are sure you do these every day.

Appropriate Dressing

It is important that you dress in a way that is appropriate for the place that you are going. If you are going to an event where people dress in a formal or a semi-formal way, do the same. For example, do not wear blue jeans and a t-shirt to a cocktail party. Do not dress in a vulgar manner. But, if you are going to a museum or a movie theater, it is acceptable to dress in a casual way. In other words, try and dress the way you think others will dress at the place you are going.

Watch what you say in public

When you are out where there are a lot of people within ear-shot and eye-shot, mind your verbal and non-verbal communication. Swear words are inappropriate in public. Do not use words which may offend other people, especially when there are children around. Do not argue in public and do not say things that could be critical. Refrain from doing things like pointing at people and using rude hand gestures.

Phone etiquette

For mobile phone usage, here are some acceptable norms. Say hello when answering and goodbye when you hang up [3] . Reply to all texts and voice mails. Do not refuse to take a message. Do not lie if someone has the wrong number. Do not tell telemarketers you will call them back. Do not pretend you are an answering machine (that&rsquos horrible).

When in elevator

For Elevators, Nod or say hello to others on the elevator. Face the front. Never push extra buttons, only the one for your floor. Do not go elevator surfing. Never stand right by someone if you are the only two people on board. Do not say &ldquoI&rsquoll wait for the next one&rdquo if only one person is on board.

Norms about public behavior

Shake hands when you meet someone. Have direct eye contact with the person you are speaking with. Consume alcohol in moderation. Unless the movie theater&rsquos filled up, never sit right next to someone. Do not stand close enough to someone to touch arms or hips. Do not curse in polite conversation. Do not pick your nose. Wear clothing, especially of a similar style that others wear. Say please and thank you. Be kind to the elderly, like opening a door or giving up your seat. Go to the back of the line. Don&rsquot invade someone&rsquos personal space. When at someone&rsquos home, ask permission, such as turning on the television or using the bathroom. Stop at a red light. Go at a green light. Pull over for emergency vehicles. Drive on the right side of the road in the United States. Do not be promiscuous. Try to avoid burping or farting in public. Flush the toilet. Say &ldquoplease&rdquo when asking for something. Say &ldquothank you&rdquo when someone does something for you. Call to let someone know you will be late.

I bet you have been following these norms every day without even noticing.


Rose-tinted dreams

All subjects reported a positive dream experience when stimulated by the rose smell, and most experienced the opposite when exposed to the rotten eggs. Stuck says the smells influence the “emotional colouration” of the dream.

The team are now looking to recruit people who suffer from nightmares to see if exposure to smells can help make their dreams more pleasant.

“The relationship between external stimuli and dreaming is something we are all at some level aware of,” says Irshaad Ebrahim of The London Sleep Centre. “This initial research is a step in the direction towards clarifying these questions and may well lead to therapeutic benefits.”

Stuck is presenting his work on Sunday at the American Academy of Otolaryngology’s annual meeting in Chicago.

The Human Brain – With one hundred billion nerve cells, the complexity is mind-boggling. Learn more in our cutting edge special report.


The importance of B.O.

One important finding by olfaction researchers is that odors aren’t all created equal. Some scents are actually processed differently by the brain.

Body odors, in particular, seem to belong to a class all their own. In a study published in Cerebral Cortex (Vol. 18, No. 6), Lundstrom found that the brain relies on different regions to process body odors versus other everyday scents. He used positron emission tomography scans to peer at women’s brains as they sniffed the armpits of T-shirts that had been slept in overnight by volunteers. They also smelled shirts infused with a fake body odor scent.

The test subjects couldn’t consciously tell which samples were real and which were fake. Yet the scans showed that true body odor scents fired up different brain pathways than artificial odors. Genuine body odors actually deactivated areas near the secondary olfactory cortex, Lundstrom says, and instead lit up several brain regions typically used not in olfaction, but in recognizing familiar and fearful stimuli. “It seems that body odors are processed by a sub-network in the brain, and not mainly by the main olfactory system,” Lundstrom says.

Back in the ancient, pre-Speed Stick era, sizing up body odors was critical for choosing mates and recognizing kin. “We believe that throughout evolution, these body odors have been tagged as important stimuli, so they’ve been given dedicated neural networks to process them,” he says.

Here too, however, there are individual differences in a person’s sensitivity to body odors. And sensitivity to these important odors may actually lay the groundwork for social communication. Denise Chen, PhD, a psychologist at Rice University, performed a version of the sweaty T-shirt test, which she published in Psychological Science (Vol. 20, No. 9). She asked each female subject to sniff three shirts — two worn by strangers, and one worn by the subject’s roommate. Chen found that women who correctly picked out their roommate’s scent scored higher on tests of emotional sensitivity. “Those people who are more sensitive to social smells are also more sensitive to emotional signals,” she concludes.


Have you ever smelled something in a dream?

The human brain is often cited as one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery, and never does this resonate more with me than right after I wake up from a particularly intense, and peculiar, dream. We spend almost half our lives asleep, but it seems like most of what happens in our heads during that time is a mystery you can't record dreams, just as you can't photograph thoughts, and memory for such things -- mine especially, even just after waking -- is such a fickle thing.

We discussed here a few months ago the great importance that the olfactory sense has to emotion, and certain kinds of memory:

Smell is the sense most closely associated with emotional memory — just think about how evocative certain scents can be — and the one most closely tied to mental health and happiness. Positive and negative associations with certain smells are locked into our brains from an early age and stick with us the rest of our lives, and to lose that sense of smell is to, in effect, lose a part of our memory. It's the subtlest of the senses, but perhaps the most crucial in terms of our emotional connection to the world.

This seems like such a basic, caveman kind of question to be asking about the nature of ourselves -- but then, that's exactly why the brain still looms as an important frontier -- and it's this: if smells are so important to our emotional connection to the world, and dreams can be so very emotional, why aren't smells more prominent in dreams?

Think about it -- when the last time you remember having smelled something in a dream? (For me, the answer is . never.) There are some accounts of "olfactory dreams," like this one from Freud's Interpretation of Dreams:

Eau de Cologne was held to his nostrils. He found himself in Cairo, in the shop of Johann Maria Farina. This was followed by fantastic adventures which he was not able to recall.

. or this one from a study conducted at Wellesley College in 1901:

I dreamed of looking off toward Milton and saying that beyond lay the ocean. I immediately got the keenest and most natural smell of wind from the flats and the delicious ocean odor. This gave me such intense pleasure, as it always does, that I awoke.

But strangely enough, sleep researchers contend that the other senses have a much greater impact on dreams -- the sound of a buzzer could easily induce a sleeper to dream of a buzzer -- and olfactory dreams are rare. (It makes me think of watching movies -- the closest thing to dreaming while awake -- and how dependent they are on the aural and visual, and how strange it would be if "smell-o-vision" were the norm.)

But our faithful readers always seem to have such interesting and diverse experiences when it comes to dreams, I'll bet there are some of you out there who've had smell dreams. Or who've had dreams influenced by smells that wafted over them while sleeping. If so, do tell!


Watch the video: Can Those Whove Lost Their Sense Of Smell, Smell In Dreams? (January 2022).