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Are the personality tests (specifically, the big five test) in open source psychometric project reliable?

Are the personality tests (specifically, the big five test) in open source psychometric project reliable?

Are the personality tests (specifically, the big five test) in open source psychometric project reliable?

Link : https://openpsychometrics.org/


Personality

A. A theory that tries to explain everything would probably not provide the best explanation for any one thing.

B. The manageability of research programs would be lost.

C. Applying principles of associationism helps reduce negative behaviors, making the cognitive approach the best one.

A. are irreconcilable and contradictory views of human psychology.

B. are all part of the One Big Theory (OBT)

C. all address the biological basis of human psychology

A. gather only a very small number of clues and focus on the important ones

B. gather only clues that are certain not to be misleading

C. rely solely on self-report data

A. measuring and conceptualizing individual differences

B. applying principles of associationism to help reduce negative behaviors

C. understanding mental conflicts

A. other people's perceptions of your personality can influence who you are and what you do

B. such judgments are rarely unbiased

C. other people's perceptions of your personality have little influence on your expectations

A. does not require the judge to make subtle discriminations between trait ratings

B. forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other

C. allows the judge to rate the target person consistently high or low on every trait

A. There are five basic personality types, each corresponding to one of the Big Five personality traits.

B. Although types add little for psychometric purposes of measurement and prediction, they still may have value as aids in education and theorizing.

C. Knowing a person's personality type adds to our ability to predict his or her behavior beyond what can be predicted by knowing how the person stands on the traits that define the typology.


Just because some thing is very popular – VERY POPULAR – doesn’t make it valid.

This is what is valid: The Big 5

UPDATE 2020 – in the early 2000s psychologists discovered evidence of a sixth personality factor, which led to a new model of personality called HEXACO. The distinctly new factor is called “honesty-humility,” and it is a component of moral character. The other components of HEXACO are all variations of the Big Five.

In contemporary psychology, the “Big Five” factors (or Five Factor Model FFM) of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality.

The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 has emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviors. The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (common acronyms are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE).

  • Conscientiousness is exemplified by being disciplined, organized, and achievement-oriented.
  • Agreeableness refers to being helpful, cooperative, and sympathetic towards others.
  • Neuroticism refers to degree of emotional stability, impulse control, and anxiety.
  • Openness is reflected in a strong intellectual curiosity and a preference for novelty and variety.
  • Extraversion is displayed through a higher degree of sociability, assertiveness, and talkativeness.

There is some evidence that personality and motivation are intricately tied with individual differences in learning styles, and it is recommended that educators go beyond the current emphasis on cognition and include these variables in understanding academic behavior.

Addendum July 14, 2018 – Same Source

Openness has been linked to learning styles that often lead to academic success and higher grades like synthesis analysis and methodical study. Because conscientiousness and openness have been shown to predict all four learning styles, it suggests that individuals who possess characteristics like discipline, determination, and curiosity are more likely to engage in all of the above learning styles.

According to the research carried out by Komarraju, Karau, Schmeck & Avdic (2011), conscientiousness and agreeableness are positively related with all four learning styles, whereas neuroticism was negatively related with those four. Furthermore, extraversion and openness were only positively related to elaborative processing, and openness itself correlated with higher academic achievement.

Besides openness, all Big Five personality traits helped predict the educational identity of students. Based on these findings, scientists are beginning to see that there might be a large influence of the Big Five traits on academic motivation that then leads to predicting a student’s academic performance.

Some authors suggested that Big Five personality traits combined with learning styles can help predict some variations in the academic performance and the academic motivation of an individual which can then influence their academic achievements. This may be seen because individual differences in personality represent stable approaches to information processing. For instance, conscientiousness has consistently emerged as a stable predictor of success in exam performance, largely because conscientious students experience fewer study delays. The reason conscientiousness shows a positive association with the four learning styles is because students with high levels of conscientiousness develop focused learning strategies and appear to be more disciplined and achievement-oriented.

The Association for Psychological Science (APS), however, recently commissioned a report whose conclusion indicates that no significant evidence exists to make the conclusion that learning-style assessments should be included in the education system. The APS also suggested in their report that all existing learning styles have not been exhausted and that there could exist learning styles that have the potential to be worthy of being included in educational practices. Thus it is premature, at best, to conclude that the evidence linking the Big Five to “learning styles”, or “learning styles” to learning itself, is valid.

The neuroticism factor is sometimes referred by its low pole – “emotional stability”. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called “intellect” rather than openness to experience. Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits are found for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity and positive emotions.

The Big Five model is a comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research finding. Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology.

The five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers (Digman, 1990). These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality.


General Format of the 16PF (Fifth Edition)

  • Contains 185 multiple-choice items
  • Written at a fifth-grade reading level
  • Untimed
  • Takes between 35–50 minutes to complete with paper and pencil
  • Takes about 30 minutes to complete with computer version

The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire asks about specific, everyday situations in order to assess your daily behavior, interests, and opinions. 16PF test questions identify and evaluate your abilities for future employers.

You are asked to rate each statement on a five-point scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" or from "very inaccurate" to "very accurate." Some examples:

  • My thoughtfulness and charitable nature are my foundation.
  • I like to solve complex problems.
  • I continue until everything is perfect.
  • I am not especially interested in abstract ideas.

Personality Test

Take this free Personality Test and find out more about who you are and your strengths. This is valuable information for choosing a career. This personality quiz measures the Big Five personality traits that were developed over three or four decades by several independent scientific researchers.

The Big Five Personality Test is by far the most scientifically validated and reliable psychological model to measure personality. This test is, together with the Jung test and the DISC assessment , one of the most well known personality tests worldwide.

This free personality test is fast and reliable. It is also used commercially by psychologists, career counselors, and other professionals that conduct personality assessment.

In the free report you won't be pigeonholed into a single type, but you will learn how you score on the big five personality traits and learn what 30 subscales exist. Additionally you can even upgrade to an extended report if you like.


Introduction

Geography is important for understanding a variety of behavioral outcomes. For instance, research in regional economics examines the ways in which local resources, infrastructure, and amenities influence residential mobility and happiness. Research in public health investigates the impact that social and economic factors have on health and well-being. And research in certain areas of political science focus on the ways in which demographic, social, and economic factors shape public opinion and affect election returns. A common theme to emerge from all of that research is that there are strong links between the locations in which people live and their attitudes, motivations, and well-being—constructs that are central to psychology. And yet, psychological scientists have only recently recognized the relevance of geography for understanding such important and widely studied phenomena.

Indeed, the past few years have witnessed growing interest in geographical psychology—the study of the spatial organization of psychological phenomena and the impact that individual characteristics, social institutions, and the environment have on that organization [1]. The most prominent strands of research focus on the geographical distribution of psychological characteristics [2–5], the links between geographical psychological characteristics and political, economic, social and health (PESH) indicators [6–8], the psychological basis of residential mobility [9–13], and the impact of the physical environment on attitudes, beliefs, and emotions [14–20].

The present research falls squarely within the first two research strands and is concerned with the geographical distribution of personality in Great Britain and its associations with PESH indicators. To date, most of the research concerned with geographical differences in personality and their PESH correlates has focused on variation across nations, and only a handful of studies have examined variation within nations, nearly all of which have focused on the United States. Thus, the current project was designed to replicate and extend research in this burgeoning area by assessing the degree to which geographical variation in personality occurs in other countries and whether similar patterns of associations between the geographical personality traits and PESH indicators emerge.

Geographical Variation in Personality

The idea that there are geographical differences in personality stems from three key lines of research. The first focuses on social influence. The basic idea is that the traditions, customs, lifestyles, and daily practices common to an area affect social norms, which in turn affect people’s attitudes and behaviors. This is the assumption underlying many studies of cross-national psychological differences [21–22]. The second line of research focuses on ecological influence, or the idea that features of the physical environment affect people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. One influential program of research suggests that geographical differences stem from the historical prevalence of infectious disease, with unhealthy environments encouraging more cautious and risk-averse traits [14, 15, 17]. There is also evidence that climates and economic conditions interact to affect people’s values and beliefs [19, 20]. The third line of research focuses on selective migration, or the hypothesis that people migrate to places that satisfy and reinforce their psychological needs. Recent research indicates that people who are creative and sociable are more likely to migrate than are people low on those traits [9,10], and that people who are agreeable are less inclined to move from their hometowns than people who are less friendly [23]. This work suggests that geographical differences in personality could emerge as a result of genetic drift.

Research on social influence, ecological influence, and genetic influence provide compelling empirically based reasons to expect geographical variation in various psychological characteristics. But what evidence is there for such variation? Most of the research on geographical variation in psychological characteristics has focused on cross-national differences, with a few studies focusing on regional variation. All of the studies have focused on variation in either personality or well being, with both lines of work revealing robust differences across and within countries.

Interest in the geographical distribution of personality stems primarily from the establishment of the Big Five framework (i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness) as an empirically based and widely accepted model for conceptualizing the structure of personality [24, 25]. Analyses of national personality differences and their links with PESH indicators are usually based on the mean personality scores derived from a sample of respondents in each nation. So to say, for example, that Switzerland is high in Conscientiousness is to say that the mean level of Conscientiousness derived from a sample of Swiss residents is high compared to the mean levels of Conscientiousness derived from samples of residents of other countries. Systematic comparisons of nation-level mean personality scores reveal considerable variability in each of the Big Five personality domains [7, 26, 27]. For example, citizens of Asian countries score lower on measures of Extraversion than citizens of other cultures citizens of Central and South American nations score higher on measures of Openness and citizens of Southern and Eastern European nations score higher in Neuroticism than do residents of Western European countries [2, 28]. Moreover, analyses of the PESH correlates of national-personality scores have revealed associations between national levels of Neuroticism, for example, and rates of cancer, smoking, obesity, and life expectancy [7], suggesting that the prevalence of anxious and depressed individuals is associated with poor health practices and disease prevalence at a national level.

Although considerable attention has been given to cross-national comparisons of personality, less attention has been paid to the ways in which these characteristics vary within countries. Research in geographical sciences has shown regional variation on a number of indicators—including public opinion, economic prosperity, crime, and morbidity—that have links to personality, so it seems reasonable to expect regions to vary on particular personality traits, too.

Indeed, evidence from a few large-scale investigations has revealed reliable variance in personality across the U.S. and one study has revealed variance across regions of the Russian Federation. Four investigations have explored the geographical distribution of personality across large multi-state regions and states [3, 4, 29, 30], the results from which have converged to indicate that there are robust geographical patterns in the distributions of personality traits across the U.S. For example, residents of the New England, Middle-Atlantic, and Pacific regions generally score higher in Openness than residents of the Great Plains, Midwest, and Southeast residents of the South score higher in Agreeableness than people living in the Northeast and residents of the Northeast and Southeast score higher in Neuroticism than do residents of the Midwest and West. Furthermore, these regional differences in personality have been linked to several important PESH outcomes. For example, state-level Openness is related to liberal public opinion, human capital, and economic prosperity [4, 8, 31, 32] Agreeableness is linked to economic equality, social capital, and low crime [6, 33] and Neuroticism is related to various indicators of poor health [4, 34–36]. There is also evidence for regional personality differences across the Russian Federation, which showed links between high Openness and economic prosperity [37]. The associations between aggregate-level personality traits and PESH outcomes indicate that the psychological characteristics that are prevalent in a region are associated with a range of important macro-level indicators, from voting patterns and academic achievement to crime and mortality.

Much of the research on geographical personality differences has focused on the prevalence of individuals with specific psychological characteristics and how the prevalence of those characteristics relate to PESH indicators. The research is useful because it provides information about how places compare on particular psychological traits and it reveals the degree to which psychological processes generalize across multiple levels of analysis and cultures. However, nearly all of the studies of regional personality differences have been carried out in the U.S. Consequently, it is unclear whether regional variations in the same psychological characteristics are evident in other countries, or whether similar patterns of associations emerge between regional psychological and PESH indicators. Extending research on regional differences to other countries has the potential to inform our understanding of the ways in which certain psychological traits cluster together geographically and become expressed on important macro-level indicators.

The Present Investigation

The aim of the present investigation was to examine regional variation in personality and its links with important PESH outcomes in Great Britain. Specifically, the present investigation asked: Is there reliable variance in personality across regions of the country? How are the Big Five personality traits geographically distributed? And how do the aggregate personality traits relate to the PESH characteristics of regions?

To address our research questions, we examined regional variation across Local Authority Districts (LADs) in Great Britain. In England, LADs correspond to London boroughs, metropolitan districts, unitary authorities, and non-metropolitan districts, in Wales they correspond to unitary authorities, and in Scotland they correspond to council areas. The current study used the 2009 LAD boundaries, which included 380 LADs. It is important to emphasize that, compared to previous analyses of regional psychological differences at the state or national levels, the current project focused on geographical regions that are significantly smaller in area and population. As a result, this project allows for a more fine-grained analysis of regional variation that can reveal differences between urban and rural environments and even differences within large cities.

Predictions.

The main goals of this investigation were to explore how the Big Five personality traits were geographically distributed in Great Britain and how they related to important PESH indicators. We made no specific predictions about the precise geographical distribution of the personality traits. However, results from previous studies on geographical personality clustering indicate that physical proximity is related to personality similarity [2, 3, 28], so we expected neighboring LADs to be psychologically similar.

Our expectations about how the LAD-level personality scores would relate to the PESH indicators were informed by past research in the U.S. [3–5, 32–36, 38]. Extraversion reflects individual differences in energy and sociability, but no consistent patterns of PESH relations have emerged for Extraversion at national or state levels, so we made no explicit predictions about how LAD-level Extraversion would relate to the PESH indicators. Agreeableness reflects individual differences in prosocial behavior and research in the U.S. suggests that aggregate-level Agreeableness is positively related to social capital and negatively related to rates of violent crime [4, 33], so we expected similar associations for LAD-level Agreeableness. Conscientiousness reflects individual differences in organization and self-discipline, and is positively linked to conservative political orientation, academic ability, and income [39, 40]. There is some evidence that aggregate-level Conscientiousness is positively related to conservatism [32], so we expected similar associations in the present investigation, but analyses of nations and states have failed to show consistent findings linking aggregate Conscientiousness to education or income, so we made no predictions about how LAD-level Conscientiousness would relate to the economic indicators. Neuroticism reflects individual differences in anxiety and depression and is associated with indicators of poor health at individual and aggregate levels of analysis [4, 35, 40], so we expected LAD-level Neuroticism to be negatively associated with health indicators. Openness reflects individual differences in curiosity and liberal values, and aggregate-level Openness has been linked to votes for liberal political candidates, human capital, wealth, and social tolerance [4, 32, 41], so we expected LAD-level Openness to be related to indicators of liberalism, economic prosperity, and social diversity.


4 Key tips to pass the SHL OPQ

4 proven tips to get the best out of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire:

  1. Complete the OPQ assessment as honestly as possible and it is as simple as that. You do not want to be flagged up as someone who is distorting an assessment. It may disqualify you from the recruitment process.
  2. Understand your personality traits before taking the OPQ. , read the report, then think of and write down a list of experiences which can be used to present your personality traits.

Our WPQ uses the Big 5 model which links directly into SHL’s OPQ. This means that you can prepare for questions linked to the OPQ by using your results from the WPQ.

For example, your result on the WPQ may show that you are more inclined to take a ‘conscientious’ rather than ‘easy-going’ approach to your work. This means you are likely to be someone who is well organised, has strong attention to detail but may be resistant to change. This would tap into the following OPQ components

Depending on what’s in the job description, these areas may be important for the role that you’re applying to so your interviewer may explore these areas with you.

Be better prepared for your OPQ interview by simply using your results on the WPQ, along with the behaviours listed as essential on the job description to think of specific examples in advance of your OPQ interview.

Provide behavioural examples which are often sought based on your profile. Being honest will provide a truer picture of you, and you will therefore be able to respond with genuine examples, easily. This will help you find the job that you will best match your personality and progress faster in your professional career.

Based on GF’s WPQ results prepare a list of jobs that will fit best your personality. It is important to both the candidate and the employer to ensure that the person-job fit is a match.

A number of research papers in the field of Occupational Psychology shows clearly that people who are in jobs that play on their natural strengths and preferences are more likely to stay in the job, perform better, progress faster and have an overall higher level of satisfaction at work. For more information, see ‘

  1. Be aware of tradeoffs once you are completing the OPQ assessment on-line

Depending on the type of personality questionnaire you take, often you will find yourself constrained to choose between skills and competencies that seem equally desirable.

For example, you might have a specific number of points to allocate to statements such as: I am a good leader, I take initiative, I adapt quickly to new situations, I make new contacts easily, I have attention to detail: and will be asked to allocate points to statements depending how correctly they describe you. You might also be asked to just rate them in order that describes you best.

In such situations, you will face trade-off. The trick is to firstly analyse what type of candidate the company might be look for and which statements really describe you best. Secondly, be consistent in your answers. In the next few questions you will be asked to evaluate some new statements that will essentially describe the same skills and competencies order: e.g. ‘I am a good leader’ might be replaced with ‘I enjoy being a leader of the team’ etc. If you sometimes say you are more of a leader that initiative-taker, and then change your mind and rate initiative-taking higher than leadership skills – this will be flagged up as an inconsistency.


Where Y’All Sitting?

Personality testing is now a $500 million industry, with growth rates estimated at 10 to 15 percent annually, and appeal to consulting firms, hedge funds and start-ups alike. At McKinsey & Company, incoming associates discover their Myers-Briggs profile within days of coming aboard at Bridgewater, the test is often administered during the application or onboarding process.

“The Color Code ” assessment was created by Dr. Hartman, a psychologist from Salt Lake City, Utah, in his self-published 1987 book of the same name, which he said has sold hundreds of thousands of copies. It bills itself as “the most accurate, comprehensive and easy to use personality test available.”

For Mr. Shapiro and some of his colleagues, it became something of a religion. “The color code helped me figure out my relationship with my mother,” he said. “It helped me figure out why dating certain girls was easier than others. To this day I still think about it in my relationships.”

That the generals of corporate America, as well as its soldiers, have embraced the personality test is hardly surprising. Hyper-efficiency remains, as ever, the workplace holy grail.

But “soft” factors, like close-knit team dynamics, are increasingly considered valuable by employers and employees alike after all, m ost workers spend more time at the office than they do with their own families. TED Talks and self-help books instruct audiences to “bring our whole selves to work.”

Personality assessments short-circuit the messiness of building what is now referred to as a “culture.” They deliver on all the complexities of interpersonal office dynamics, but without the intimate, and expensive, process of actually speaking with employees to determine their quirks and preferences.

They a ppeal also, perhaps, for the same reason astrology, numerology and other hocus-pocus systems do: because it’s fun to divide people into categories. They tap into the angst of the “where y’all sitting” meme, the hunger to know where you belong in the lunchtime cafeteria scene.

Myers-Briggs makes human resources into an algorithm: Give your employee an online quiz, and within minutes you’ll know whether they’re social (E) or quiet (I), interested in details (S) or the big picture (N). Forget all the messy, expensive team off-sites and one-on-ones — how much easier is it to compress assessments into four little letters, puzzle pieces on the page? It’s H.R. tailor-made for the Buzzfeed quiz generation.

Katherine Wang, 26, a consultant at one of the largest global management consulting firms (which asks its employees not to disclose their work affiliation to the press), said she found out her Myers-Briggs profile at her first company training. Immediately, she was seated with others who shared her type for conversation on how their personality traits might affect their working styles. She quickly memorized her profile and others. Each time she began a new case, she’d study her teammates’s Myers-Briggs before even considering the client’s needs.

Ms. Wang was skeptical of all the talk of INTJs and ENFPs when she first arrived on the job, but within a few months she came to appreciate the test’s value. It provided a shorthand to talk about a whole range of personal needs: how much you like to fill your calendar, how you want your manager to give feedback, how personal you want to get with colleagues at the water cooler.

For Nerissa Clarke, 33, a researcher at a public policy group, her company’s all-day training on the Insights Discovery test served as a much-needed reprieve from a routine of spreadsheet analysis.

“We sit there crunching numbers in Excel so it’s good for us to do team-building,” Ms. Clarke said, though perhaps efficiency comes at the expense of naturalness. “At my old job we had much more of a culture of people getting to know each other in an organic way.”

At Harley-Davidson, the motorcycle company, Kelly Arnold , a 40-year-old project manager, said employees are required to learn their top five strengths through CliftonStrengths. These are then included on email signatures and hung on cubicles beneath nameplates.

Ms. Arnold noted that Harley-Davidson’s adoption of personality tests might come as a surprise to outsiders. Aren’t its workers supposed to be gruff, leather-wearing biker dudes with no time for conversation on personality? But it showed, she said, that “we’re in tune with our inner selves, just like any other company.”

Just recently, one human resources director ran a workshop for Ms. Arnold’s team on a personality test called the enneagram, and Arnold learned that she’s a “number six.” “That means when I meet people I’m suspicious, but once I work with them and see their true colors, I learn that I can trust them,” she said.

For Ms. Arnold, personality testing helped with professional development, but others have been negatively affected by the test results.


Abstract

In the last decade, an upward trend in the use of short measurements for personality can be observed. The goal of this study was to explore the psychometric characteristics of the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S Gerlitz & Schupp, 2005), a 15-item instrument. We compared the BFI-S with the NEO-PI-R (Costa and McCrae, 1992a, Costa and McCrae, 1992b) in a sample of 598 German adults (mean age = 42 years). Despite shortcomings for Agreeableness, the short scales generally showed acceptable levels of: (1) internal consistency, (2) stability over a period of 18 months, (3) convergent validity in relation to the NEO-PI-R and (4) discriminant validity. We conclude that in research settings with a pronounced need for parsimony, the BFI-S offers a sufficient level of utility.

Highlights

► Researchers are often confronted with the requirement to use very brief scales. ► We examine the psychometric characteristics of the SOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S). ► We compare the BFI-S scales with the dimensions and facets of the NEO-PI-R. ► Results indicate that the BFI-S shows acceptable levels of reliability and validity. ► The BFI-S scales capture the Big Five personality domains reasonably well.


Understand who you truly are.

9 to 5 in the office policies do suit a particular type of worker. that more extraverted person. And that’s great, but you’re not going to go very far with just one personality type in your company. you need to make sure your work policies work for everyone.

We’ve really seen an explosion in interest in personality assessments especially among Millennials and Gen Z.. that’s due to a lot of interest in individual differences and -- in a more complex labor market, people wanting to understand where they fit in.

Truity has developed in-depth personality tests that go beyond the surface and offer deeper insights than nonscientific quizlets and gimmicky polls.

People in Illinois are competitive and less creative in their thinking while residents of Vermont are incredibly introverted, according to a new study from Truity.

A survey of 1,505 found that those with the ESTJ personality type earn the highest average yearly income.

A study done by personality testmaker Truity Psychometrics found that extroverts make more money than introverts. With their outgoing personalities, extroverts easily fall into managerial and leadership positions.

Openness describes a person's tendency to think in abstract, complex ways, while agreeableness describes a person's tendency to put others' needs ahead of their own, and to cooperate rather than compete with others, according to Truity.com.

According to data from Truity Psychometrics, "Thinkers," or those who are more analytical and logical, tend to manage bigger teams than "Feelers," or those who are more sensitive to other people's needs.

What does your personality type have to do with being an entrepreneur? Quite a bit, according to a recent study.

Deciding on a career is daunting, especially when you’re not quite sure what you want to do for a living. To start you in the right direction, it might help to know your career personality type.

The results. don't demonstrate that personality is destiny, but they do show that certain personality types are linked to more financially successful and personally rewarding experiences in the workplace.


Introduction

Geography is important for understanding a variety of behavioral outcomes. For instance, research in regional economics examines the ways in which local resources, infrastructure, and amenities influence residential mobility and happiness. Research in public health investigates the impact that social and economic factors have on health and well-being. And research in certain areas of political science focus on the ways in which demographic, social, and economic factors shape public opinion and affect election returns. A common theme to emerge from all of that research is that there are strong links between the locations in which people live and their attitudes, motivations, and well-being—constructs that are central to psychology. And yet, psychological scientists have only recently recognized the relevance of geography for understanding such important and widely studied phenomena.

Indeed, the past few years have witnessed growing interest in geographical psychology—the study of the spatial organization of psychological phenomena and the impact that individual characteristics, social institutions, and the environment have on that organization [1]. The most prominent strands of research focus on the geographical distribution of psychological characteristics [2–5], the links between geographical psychological characteristics and political, economic, social and health (PESH) indicators [6–8], the psychological basis of residential mobility [9–13], and the impact of the physical environment on attitudes, beliefs, and emotions [14–20].

The present research falls squarely within the first two research strands and is concerned with the geographical distribution of personality in Great Britain and its associations with PESH indicators. To date, most of the research concerned with geographical differences in personality and their PESH correlates has focused on variation across nations, and only a handful of studies have examined variation within nations, nearly all of which have focused on the United States. Thus, the current project was designed to replicate and extend research in this burgeoning area by assessing the degree to which geographical variation in personality occurs in other countries and whether similar patterns of associations between the geographical personality traits and PESH indicators emerge.

Geographical Variation in Personality

The idea that there are geographical differences in personality stems from three key lines of research. The first focuses on social influence. The basic idea is that the traditions, customs, lifestyles, and daily practices common to an area affect social norms, which in turn affect people’s attitudes and behaviors. This is the assumption underlying many studies of cross-national psychological differences [21–22]. The second line of research focuses on ecological influence, or the idea that features of the physical environment affect people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. One influential program of research suggests that geographical differences stem from the historical prevalence of infectious disease, with unhealthy environments encouraging more cautious and risk-averse traits [14, 15, 17]. There is also evidence that climates and economic conditions interact to affect people’s values and beliefs [19, 20]. The third line of research focuses on selective migration, or the hypothesis that people migrate to places that satisfy and reinforce their psychological needs. Recent research indicates that people who are creative and sociable are more likely to migrate than are people low on those traits [9,10], and that people who are agreeable are less inclined to move from their hometowns than people who are less friendly [23]. This work suggests that geographical differences in personality could emerge as a result of genetic drift.

Research on social influence, ecological influence, and genetic influence provide compelling empirically based reasons to expect geographical variation in various psychological characteristics. But what evidence is there for such variation? Most of the research on geographical variation in psychological characteristics has focused on cross-national differences, with a few studies focusing on regional variation. All of the studies have focused on variation in either personality or well being, with both lines of work revealing robust differences across and within countries.

Interest in the geographical distribution of personality stems primarily from the establishment of the Big Five framework (i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness) as an empirically based and widely accepted model for conceptualizing the structure of personality [24, 25]. Analyses of national personality differences and their links with PESH indicators are usually based on the mean personality scores derived from a sample of respondents in each nation. So to say, for example, that Switzerland is high in Conscientiousness is to say that the mean level of Conscientiousness derived from a sample of Swiss residents is high compared to the mean levels of Conscientiousness derived from samples of residents of other countries. Systematic comparisons of nation-level mean personality scores reveal considerable variability in each of the Big Five personality domains [7, 26, 27]. For example, citizens of Asian countries score lower on measures of Extraversion than citizens of other cultures citizens of Central and South American nations score higher on measures of Openness and citizens of Southern and Eastern European nations score higher in Neuroticism than do residents of Western European countries [2, 28]. Moreover, analyses of the PESH correlates of national-personality scores have revealed associations between national levels of Neuroticism, for example, and rates of cancer, smoking, obesity, and life expectancy [7], suggesting that the prevalence of anxious and depressed individuals is associated with poor health practices and disease prevalence at a national level.

Although considerable attention has been given to cross-national comparisons of personality, less attention has been paid to the ways in which these characteristics vary within countries. Research in geographical sciences has shown regional variation on a number of indicators—including public opinion, economic prosperity, crime, and morbidity—that have links to personality, so it seems reasonable to expect regions to vary on particular personality traits, too.

Indeed, evidence from a few large-scale investigations has revealed reliable variance in personality across the U.S. and one study has revealed variance across regions of the Russian Federation. Four investigations have explored the geographical distribution of personality across large multi-state regions and states [3, 4, 29, 30], the results from which have converged to indicate that there are robust geographical patterns in the distributions of personality traits across the U.S. For example, residents of the New England, Middle-Atlantic, and Pacific regions generally score higher in Openness than residents of the Great Plains, Midwest, and Southeast residents of the South score higher in Agreeableness than people living in the Northeast and residents of the Northeast and Southeast score higher in Neuroticism than do residents of the Midwest and West. Furthermore, these regional differences in personality have been linked to several important PESH outcomes. For example, state-level Openness is related to liberal public opinion, human capital, and economic prosperity [4, 8, 31, 32] Agreeableness is linked to economic equality, social capital, and low crime [6, 33] and Neuroticism is related to various indicators of poor health [4, 34–36]. There is also evidence for regional personality differences across the Russian Federation, which showed links between high Openness and economic prosperity [37]. The associations between aggregate-level personality traits and PESH outcomes indicate that the psychological characteristics that are prevalent in a region are associated with a range of important macro-level indicators, from voting patterns and academic achievement to crime and mortality.

Much of the research on geographical personality differences has focused on the prevalence of individuals with specific psychological characteristics and how the prevalence of those characteristics relate to PESH indicators. The research is useful because it provides information about how places compare on particular psychological traits and it reveals the degree to which psychological processes generalize across multiple levels of analysis and cultures. However, nearly all of the studies of regional personality differences have been carried out in the U.S. Consequently, it is unclear whether regional variations in the same psychological characteristics are evident in other countries, or whether similar patterns of associations emerge between regional psychological and PESH indicators. Extending research on regional differences to other countries has the potential to inform our understanding of the ways in which certain psychological traits cluster together geographically and become expressed on important macro-level indicators.

The Present Investigation

The aim of the present investigation was to examine regional variation in personality and its links with important PESH outcomes in Great Britain. Specifically, the present investigation asked: Is there reliable variance in personality across regions of the country? How are the Big Five personality traits geographically distributed? And how do the aggregate personality traits relate to the PESH characteristics of regions?

To address our research questions, we examined regional variation across Local Authority Districts (LADs) in Great Britain. In England, LADs correspond to London boroughs, metropolitan districts, unitary authorities, and non-metropolitan districts, in Wales they correspond to unitary authorities, and in Scotland they correspond to council areas. The current study used the 2009 LAD boundaries, which included 380 LADs. It is important to emphasize that, compared to previous analyses of regional psychological differences at the state or national levels, the current project focused on geographical regions that are significantly smaller in area and population. As a result, this project allows for a more fine-grained analysis of regional variation that can reveal differences between urban and rural environments and even differences within large cities.

Predictions.

The main goals of this investigation were to explore how the Big Five personality traits were geographically distributed in Great Britain and how they related to important PESH indicators. We made no specific predictions about the precise geographical distribution of the personality traits. However, results from previous studies on geographical personality clustering indicate that physical proximity is related to personality similarity [2, 3, 28], so we expected neighboring LADs to be psychologically similar.

Our expectations about how the LAD-level personality scores would relate to the PESH indicators were informed by past research in the U.S. [3–5, 32–36, 38]. Extraversion reflects individual differences in energy and sociability, but no consistent patterns of PESH relations have emerged for Extraversion at national or state levels, so we made no explicit predictions about how LAD-level Extraversion would relate to the PESH indicators. Agreeableness reflects individual differences in prosocial behavior and research in the U.S. suggests that aggregate-level Agreeableness is positively related to social capital and negatively related to rates of violent crime [4, 33], so we expected similar associations for LAD-level Agreeableness. Conscientiousness reflects individual differences in organization and self-discipline, and is positively linked to conservative political orientation, academic ability, and income [39, 40]. There is some evidence that aggregate-level Conscientiousness is positively related to conservatism [32], so we expected similar associations in the present investigation, but analyses of nations and states have failed to show consistent findings linking aggregate Conscientiousness to education or income, so we made no predictions about how LAD-level Conscientiousness would relate to the economic indicators. Neuroticism reflects individual differences in anxiety and depression and is associated with indicators of poor health at individual and aggregate levels of analysis [4, 35, 40], so we expected LAD-level Neuroticism to be negatively associated with health indicators. Openness reflects individual differences in curiosity and liberal values, and aggregate-level Openness has been linked to votes for liberal political candidates, human capital, wealth, and social tolerance [4, 32, 41], so we expected LAD-level Openness to be related to indicators of liberalism, economic prosperity, and social diversity.


Personality

A. A theory that tries to explain everything would probably not provide the best explanation for any one thing.

B. The manageability of research programs would be lost.

C. Applying principles of associationism helps reduce negative behaviors, making the cognitive approach the best one.

A. are irreconcilable and contradictory views of human psychology.

B. are all part of the One Big Theory (OBT)

C. all address the biological basis of human psychology

A. gather only a very small number of clues and focus on the important ones

B. gather only clues that are certain not to be misleading

C. rely solely on self-report data

A. measuring and conceptualizing individual differences

B. applying principles of associationism to help reduce negative behaviors

C. understanding mental conflicts

A. other people's perceptions of your personality can influence who you are and what you do

B. such judgments are rarely unbiased

C. other people's perceptions of your personality have little influence on your expectations

A. does not require the judge to make subtle discriminations between trait ratings

B. forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other

C. allows the judge to rate the target person consistently high or low on every trait

A. There are five basic personality types, each corresponding to one of the Big Five personality traits.

B. Although types add little for psychometric purposes of measurement and prediction, they still may have value as aids in education and theorizing.

C. Knowing a person's personality type adds to our ability to predict his or her behavior beyond what can be predicted by knowing how the person stands on the traits that define the typology.


Just because some thing is very popular – VERY POPULAR – doesn’t make it valid.

This is what is valid: The Big 5

UPDATE 2020 – in the early 2000s psychologists discovered evidence of a sixth personality factor, which led to a new model of personality called HEXACO. The distinctly new factor is called “honesty-humility,” and it is a component of moral character. The other components of HEXACO are all variations of the Big Five.

In contemporary psychology, the “Big Five” factors (or Five Factor Model FFM) of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality.

The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 has emerged as a robust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academic behaviors. The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (common acronyms are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE).

  • Conscientiousness is exemplified by being disciplined, organized, and achievement-oriented.
  • Agreeableness refers to being helpful, cooperative, and sympathetic towards others.
  • Neuroticism refers to degree of emotional stability, impulse control, and anxiety.
  • Openness is reflected in a strong intellectual curiosity and a preference for novelty and variety.
  • Extraversion is displayed through a higher degree of sociability, assertiveness, and talkativeness.

There is some evidence that personality and motivation are intricately tied with individual differences in learning styles, and it is recommended that educators go beyond the current emphasis on cognition and include these variables in understanding academic behavior.

Addendum July 14, 2018 – Same Source

Openness has been linked to learning styles that often lead to academic success and higher grades like synthesis analysis and methodical study. Because conscientiousness and openness have been shown to predict all four learning styles, it suggests that individuals who possess characteristics like discipline, determination, and curiosity are more likely to engage in all of the above learning styles.

According to the research carried out by Komarraju, Karau, Schmeck & Avdic (2011), conscientiousness and agreeableness are positively related with all four learning styles, whereas neuroticism was negatively related with those four. Furthermore, extraversion and openness were only positively related to elaborative processing, and openness itself correlated with higher academic achievement.

Besides openness, all Big Five personality traits helped predict the educational identity of students. Based on these findings, scientists are beginning to see that there might be a large influence of the Big Five traits on academic motivation that then leads to predicting a student’s academic performance.

Some authors suggested that Big Five personality traits combined with learning styles can help predict some variations in the academic performance and the academic motivation of an individual which can then influence their academic achievements. This may be seen because individual differences in personality represent stable approaches to information processing. For instance, conscientiousness has consistently emerged as a stable predictor of success in exam performance, largely because conscientious students experience fewer study delays. The reason conscientiousness shows a positive association with the four learning styles is because students with high levels of conscientiousness develop focused learning strategies and appear to be more disciplined and achievement-oriented.

The Association for Psychological Science (APS), however, recently commissioned a report whose conclusion indicates that no significant evidence exists to make the conclusion that learning-style assessments should be included in the education system. The APS also suggested in their report that all existing learning styles have not been exhausted and that there could exist learning styles that have the potential to be worthy of being included in educational practices. Thus it is premature, at best, to conclude that the evidence linking the Big Five to “learning styles”, or “learning styles” to learning itself, is valid.

The neuroticism factor is sometimes referred by its low pole – “emotional stability”. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called “intellect” rather than openness to experience. Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits are found for example, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity and positive emotions.

The Big Five model is a comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research finding. Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology.

The five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers (Digman, 1990). These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality.


Understand who you truly are.

9 to 5 in the office policies do suit a particular type of worker. that more extraverted person. And that’s great, but you’re not going to go very far with just one personality type in your company. you need to make sure your work policies work for everyone.

We’ve really seen an explosion in interest in personality assessments especially among Millennials and Gen Z.. that’s due to a lot of interest in individual differences and -- in a more complex labor market, people wanting to understand where they fit in.

Truity has developed in-depth personality tests that go beyond the surface and offer deeper insights than nonscientific quizlets and gimmicky polls.

People in Illinois are competitive and less creative in their thinking while residents of Vermont are incredibly introverted, according to a new study from Truity.

A survey of 1,505 found that those with the ESTJ personality type earn the highest average yearly income.

A study done by personality testmaker Truity Psychometrics found that extroverts make more money than introverts. With their outgoing personalities, extroverts easily fall into managerial and leadership positions.

Openness describes a person's tendency to think in abstract, complex ways, while agreeableness describes a person's tendency to put others' needs ahead of their own, and to cooperate rather than compete with others, according to Truity.com.

According to data from Truity Psychometrics, "Thinkers," or those who are more analytical and logical, tend to manage bigger teams than "Feelers," or those who are more sensitive to other people's needs.

What does your personality type have to do with being an entrepreneur? Quite a bit, according to a recent study.

Deciding on a career is daunting, especially when you’re not quite sure what you want to do for a living. To start you in the right direction, it might help to know your career personality type.

The results. don't demonstrate that personality is destiny, but they do show that certain personality types are linked to more financially successful and personally rewarding experiences in the workplace.


4 Key tips to pass the SHL OPQ

4 proven tips to get the best out of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire:

  1. Complete the OPQ assessment as honestly as possible and it is as simple as that. You do not want to be flagged up as someone who is distorting an assessment. It may disqualify you from the recruitment process.
  2. Understand your personality traits before taking the OPQ. , read the report, then think of and write down a list of experiences which can be used to present your personality traits.

Our WPQ uses the Big 5 model which links directly into SHL’s OPQ. This means that you can prepare for questions linked to the OPQ by using your results from the WPQ.

For example, your result on the WPQ may show that you are more inclined to take a ‘conscientious’ rather than ‘easy-going’ approach to your work. This means you are likely to be someone who is well organised, has strong attention to detail but may be resistant to change. This would tap into the following OPQ components

Depending on what’s in the job description, these areas may be important for the role that you’re applying to so your interviewer may explore these areas with you.

Be better prepared for your OPQ interview by simply using your results on the WPQ, along with the behaviours listed as essential on the job description to think of specific examples in advance of your OPQ interview.

Provide behavioural examples which are often sought based on your profile. Being honest will provide a truer picture of you, and you will therefore be able to respond with genuine examples, easily. This will help you find the job that you will best match your personality and progress faster in your professional career.

Based on GF’s WPQ results prepare a list of jobs that will fit best your personality. It is important to both the candidate and the employer to ensure that the person-job fit is a match.

A number of research papers in the field of Occupational Psychology shows clearly that people who are in jobs that play on their natural strengths and preferences are more likely to stay in the job, perform better, progress faster and have an overall higher level of satisfaction at work. For more information, see ‘

  1. Be aware of tradeoffs once you are completing the OPQ assessment on-line

Depending on the type of personality questionnaire you take, often you will find yourself constrained to choose between skills and competencies that seem equally desirable.

For example, you might have a specific number of points to allocate to statements such as: I am a good leader, I take initiative, I adapt quickly to new situations, I make new contacts easily, I have attention to detail: and will be asked to allocate points to statements depending how correctly they describe you. You might also be asked to just rate them in order that describes you best.

In such situations, you will face trade-off. The trick is to firstly analyse what type of candidate the company might be look for and which statements really describe you best. Secondly, be consistent in your answers. In the next few questions you will be asked to evaluate some new statements that will essentially describe the same skills and competencies order: e.g. ‘I am a good leader’ might be replaced with ‘I enjoy being a leader of the team’ etc. If you sometimes say you are more of a leader that initiative-taker, and then change your mind and rate initiative-taking higher than leadership skills – this will be flagged up as an inconsistency.


General Format of the 16PF (Fifth Edition)

  • Contains 185 multiple-choice items
  • Written at a fifth-grade reading level
  • Untimed
  • Takes between 35–50 minutes to complete with paper and pencil
  • Takes about 30 minutes to complete with computer version

The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire asks about specific, everyday situations in order to assess your daily behavior, interests, and opinions. 16PF test questions identify and evaluate your abilities for future employers.

You are asked to rate each statement on a five-point scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" or from "very inaccurate" to "very accurate." Some examples:

  • My thoughtfulness and charitable nature are my foundation.
  • I like to solve complex problems.
  • I continue until everything is perfect.
  • I am not especially interested in abstract ideas.

Where Y’All Sitting?

Personality testing is now a $500 million industry, with growth rates estimated at 10 to 15 percent annually, and appeal to consulting firms, hedge funds and start-ups alike. At McKinsey & Company, incoming associates discover their Myers-Briggs profile within days of coming aboard at Bridgewater, the test is often administered during the application or onboarding process.

“The Color Code ” assessment was created by Dr. Hartman, a psychologist from Salt Lake City, Utah, in his self-published 1987 book of the same name, which he said has sold hundreds of thousands of copies. It bills itself as “the most accurate, comprehensive and easy to use personality test available.”

For Mr. Shapiro and some of his colleagues, it became something of a religion. “The color code helped me figure out my relationship with my mother,” he said. “It helped me figure out why dating certain girls was easier than others. To this day I still think about it in my relationships.”

That the generals of corporate America, as well as its soldiers, have embraced the personality test is hardly surprising. Hyper-efficiency remains, as ever, the workplace holy grail.

But “soft” factors, like close-knit team dynamics, are increasingly considered valuable by employers and employees alike after all, m ost workers spend more time at the office than they do with their own families. TED Talks and self-help books instruct audiences to “bring our whole selves to work.”

Personality assessments short-circuit the messiness of building what is now referred to as a “culture.” They deliver on all the complexities of interpersonal office dynamics, but without the intimate, and expensive, process of actually speaking with employees to determine their quirks and preferences.

They a ppeal also, perhaps, for the same reason astrology, numerology and other hocus-pocus systems do: because it’s fun to divide people into categories. They tap into the angst of the “where y’all sitting” meme, the hunger to know where you belong in the lunchtime cafeteria scene.

Myers-Briggs makes human resources into an algorithm: Give your employee an online quiz, and within minutes you’ll know whether they’re social (E) or quiet (I), interested in details (S) or the big picture (N). Forget all the messy, expensive team off-sites and one-on-ones — how much easier is it to compress assessments into four little letters, puzzle pieces on the page? It’s H.R. tailor-made for the Buzzfeed quiz generation.

Katherine Wang, 26, a consultant at one of the largest global management consulting firms (which asks its employees not to disclose their work affiliation to the press), said she found out her Myers-Briggs profile at her first company training. Immediately, she was seated with others who shared her type for conversation on how their personality traits might affect their working styles. She quickly memorized her profile and others. Each time she began a new case, she’d study her teammates’s Myers-Briggs before even considering the client’s needs.

Ms. Wang was skeptical of all the talk of INTJs and ENFPs when she first arrived on the job, but within a few months she came to appreciate the test’s value. It provided a shorthand to talk about a whole range of personal needs: how much you like to fill your calendar, how you want your manager to give feedback, how personal you want to get with colleagues at the water cooler.

For Nerissa Clarke, 33, a researcher at a public policy group, her company’s all-day training on the Insights Discovery test served as a much-needed reprieve from a routine of spreadsheet analysis.

“We sit there crunching numbers in Excel so it’s good for us to do team-building,” Ms. Clarke said, though perhaps efficiency comes at the expense of naturalness. “At my old job we had much more of a culture of people getting to know each other in an organic way.”

At Harley-Davidson, the motorcycle company, Kelly Arnold , a 40-year-old project manager, said employees are required to learn their top five strengths through CliftonStrengths. These are then included on email signatures and hung on cubicles beneath nameplates.

Ms. Arnold noted that Harley-Davidson’s adoption of personality tests might come as a surprise to outsiders. Aren’t its workers supposed to be gruff, leather-wearing biker dudes with no time for conversation on personality? But it showed, she said, that “we’re in tune with our inner selves, just like any other company.”

Just recently, one human resources director ran a workshop for Ms. Arnold’s team on a personality test called the enneagram, and Arnold learned that she’s a “number six.” “That means when I meet people I’m suspicious, but once I work with them and see their true colors, I learn that I can trust them,” she said.

For Ms. Arnold, personality testing helped with professional development, but others have been negatively affected by the test results.


Abstract

In the last decade, an upward trend in the use of short measurements for personality can be observed. The goal of this study was to explore the psychometric characteristics of the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S Gerlitz & Schupp, 2005), a 15-item instrument. We compared the BFI-S with the NEO-PI-R (Costa and McCrae, 1992a, Costa and McCrae, 1992b) in a sample of 598 German adults (mean age = 42 years). Despite shortcomings for Agreeableness, the short scales generally showed acceptable levels of: (1) internal consistency, (2) stability over a period of 18 months, (3) convergent validity in relation to the NEO-PI-R and (4) discriminant validity. We conclude that in research settings with a pronounced need for parsimony, the BFI-S offers a sufficient level of utility.

Highlights

► Researchers are often confronted with the requirement to use very brief scales. ► We examine the psychometric characteristics of the SOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S). ► We compare the BFI-S scales with the dimensions and facets of the NEO-PI-R. ► Results indicate that the BFI-S shows acceptable levels of reliability and validity. ► The BFI-S scales capture the Big Five personality domains reasonably well.


Personality Test

Take this free Personality Test and find out more about who you are and your strengths. This is valuable information for choosing a career. This personality quiz measures the Big Five personality traits that were developed over three or four decades by several independent scientific researchers.

The Big Five Personality Test is by far the most scientifically validated and reliable psychological model to measure personality. This test is, together with the Jung test and the DISC assessment , one of the most well known personality tests worldwide.

This free personality test is fast and reliable. It is also used commercially by psychologists, career counselors, and other professionals that conduct personality assessment.

In the free report you won't be pigeonholed into a single type, but you will learn how you score on the big five personality traits and learn what 30 subscales exist. Additionally you can even upgrade to an extended report if you like.


Watch the video: Are Personality Tests Accurate? This One Is u0026 Heres Why You Should Do It (January 2022).