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List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses

List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses

I would be grateful to anyone who takes some time to answer. Is there any up-to-date list of all psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses, in the strict neuro-psychiatric scientific definition?

Would a list of such conditions, disorders and illnesses be different under the context of contemporary psychoanalysis (not of-course pure Freud based from the 1900s)? Or would they be included in the above-mentioned list? If not, is there the second list, psychoanalytical oriented, but still based on scientific publications?

Any form of such a list (or catalog), including wikipedia, medpud or other major Journal publication or even a scientific book, would work.

Thanks and please do understand the "anonymous" posting


The DSM-5 is the current version of the diagnostic manual of the APA.

It's hard to say there is any such thing as a "strict neuro-psychiatric" definition; these definitions are by their nature not strict at all, but the DSM is probably the closest thing to some level of unified understanding in the field. That doesn't mean everyone agrees with it - they certainly don't - and you can infer from changes from edition to edition that it is all far from settled.


Apart from the DSM-5, the World Health Organisation maintains the International Classification of Diseases, currently on it's 11th revision (ICD-11). It contains far more than just psychological disorders, but these are included.


What is psychopathology?

Although it is often used, the term "mental illnesses" is considered incorrect from a semantic point of view, since the focus of the word "disease" is strictly preferred. Similarly, the word "psychopathology" refers to a medical-inspired model of clinical psychology. The most used concept in clinical psychology is that of "mental disorders," although many people also consider this a derogatory term and the same can be said of "psychopathology." Umbrella terms such as "psychological problems" are often used to talk about mental disorders without focusing on the actual disease.

When we talk about psychopathology or mental disorders we are referring to an extensive set of problems related to behavior, cognitive ability, and emotions. Often, the causes are not physical (such as medical illnesses) nor do patients experience psychological symptoms. This is the case of psychoses, which have a clear biological foundation but are usually analyzed and treated as mental rather than medical disorders.

The most popular point of view in current clinical psychology defines mental disorders as problems that significantly affect the person, their environment or other individuals in different ways. Thus, for example, depression can lead to social isolation and even suicide, while antisocial behavior disorders often cause legal problems to the affected people and physical or material damage to others.

In practice, however, the terminology used is not as relevant as the final influence of the clinical professional responsible for assisting the lives of people suffering from psychological problems. The bottom line is that labeling people with mental disorders as being "ill" limits the positive change they can experience in a discipline in which collaboration and empathy with the patient are vital.


Psychological Illnesses

In other instances, the most obvious cause for a mental illness lies in the life-history of a patient. Abuse, insecurity, trauma, even simple confusions that have become entirely integrated into the mental and emotional system of a patient are best dealt with primarily through counseling and behavioral therapy, only supplemented by medical treatment to alleviate stress and anxiety, or depression. When the underlying causes of mental illness aren’t medical, they can best be compared to faulty data fed into a computer, or bad programming. No matter how the glitch in the mental patterns arrived, the only way to deal with the problem is to locate where the errors are, and fix them with better data and better self-programming.

This is usually accomplished through personal therapy, behavioral therapy, and coaching. These methods can help carry a patient through an examination of his or her life, with special attention given to experiences, thoughts, and assumptions that contribute to poor mental health. Once a patient finds the issues of their life with the help of a counselor, new ways of thinking and behaving are worked out and put into practice.


Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. Obsessions are recurrent thoughts, images or impulses that are intrusive and unwanted. Compulsions are time-consuming and distressing repetitive rituals. Ttreatments include cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and medications

Paranoia is the irrational and persistent feeling that people are ‘out to get you’. Paranoia may be a symptom of conditions including paranoid personality disorder, delusional (paranoid) disorder and schizophrenia. Treatment for paranoiainclude medications and psychological support.


List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses - Psychology

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List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses - Psychology


OMETIMES , a person will experience psychological problems as the result of an underlying medical condition.

In some of these cases it doesn’t take much thought to realize what’s happening, as, for example, when a person who has had a heart attack becomes depressed. But in other cases, such as thyroid disease or pancreatic cancer, a person can have an illness and not even know it, because the only thing that seems out of order may be a feeling of depression or anxiety, perhaps in conjunction with vague bodily pain. Only a competent investigation into the cause of the psychological symptoms will lead to a discovery of the medical condition.

I’ve presented the information that follows in the hope that you or someone you know will take nothing for granted in regard to psychology. For your own sake, if you ever feel emotionally out of order, get a complete medical check-up before trying anything else. Moreover, if you ever decide to start psychotherapy, and if, in the first sessions, your psychotherapist doesn’t ask some direct questions about your medical condition, then find another psychotherapist—quick.

If you don’t know what a particular medical term below means, copy the term and paste it into a search engine search window.


Anxiety / Panic Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, pheochromocytoma, hypoglycemia, hyperadrenocorticism)

cardiovascular conditions (such as congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, arrhythmia)

respiratory conditions (such as pulmonary disease, pneumonia, hyperventilation)

metabolic conditions (such as vitamin deficiency, porphyria)

neurological conditions (such as epilepsy, neoplasms, vestibular dysfunction, encephalitis)


Impulse-Control Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

episodes of unconsciousness

febrile seizures in childhood


Mood Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

degenerative neurological conditions (such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease)

cerebrovascular disease (such as stroke)

metabolic conditions (such as vitamin deficiency e.g. vitamin D3)

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

autoimmune conditions (such as systemic lupus erythematosus)

viral or other infections (such as hepatitis, mononucleosis, HIV)

certain cancers (such as carcinoma of the pancreas)

environmental factors (such as EMF radiation)


Personality Changes can result from a variety of conditions, such as

central nervous system neoplasms

infectious conditions with central nervous system involvement (such as HIV)

endocrine conditions (such as hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

autoimmune conditions with central nervous system involvement (such as systemic lupus erythematosus)


Sexual Dysfunction can result from a variety of conditions, such as

neurological conditions (such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord lesions, neuropathy, temporal lobe lesions)

endocrine conditions (such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadal states, pituitary dysfunction)


Sleep Disorders can result from a variety of conditions, such as

degenerative neurological illnesses (such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease)

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

viral and bacterial infections

coughing or breathing problems related to respiratory conditions (such as chronic bronchitis, asthma)

pain from musculoskeletal disease (rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia)

Chronic Fatigue itself, usually called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), used to be called neurasthenia . The syndrome is characterized by a wide variety of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, muscle and joint pain, headache, memory and concentration difficulties, and difficulty sleeping. No one has yet found a single cause for this syndrome in fact, current research reveals that CFS is a complex medical disorder with multiple causation. If CFS is diagnosed early, new medical treatments can promote improvement.

A person who is chronically fatigued can grow to become depressed simply over feeling so miserable so much of the time. Therefore, one form of treatment can also be psychological: learning how to cope with the frustration of symptoms that are real and physical but have a mysterious cause and no single cure. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help you identify and heal emotional conflicts from the past so that unconscious resentments do not “feed” the disease. Cognitive-behavioral treatment, especially hypnosis and guided imagery, can help you learn mental qualities such as perseverance and relaxed concentration so that you do not succumb to feelings of panic and depression.

S OMETIMES other medical conditions that can cause generalized, chronic malaise are misdiagnosed as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The following (in alphabetical order) are examples:


Coeliac (or celiac) disease , is a disorder that primarily affects the small intestine. Symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhea and abdominal distention loss of appetite and inability to gain weight chronic fatigue dermatitis and mental distractibility or confusion. Furthermore, in childhood, symptoms can include growth delay or pubertal delay. The disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, and treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet.

Early Menopause can cause symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, irritability, mood instability, anxiety, and frequent crying episodes. In young women (as young as 30), when menopause is not expected, these symptoms can also be misdiagnosed as depression. [1]

Hypothyroidism , a condition caused by a thyroid secretion deficiency, is a common endocrine disorder. Symptoms can include weakness, dry skin/hair, lethargy, forgetfulness, depression, apathy, and constipation. If apathy is a symptom, the tendency to minimize complaints can delay diagnosis. Hypothyroidism can be treated successfully with medication.

Lyme disease can result from a tick bite, generally from a deer tick. You might know that you’ve been bitten if you find the tick on your skin or if a red patch on the skin develops following the bite. The redness does not always develop, however, so some persons never realize that they have been bitten. The disease can also be passed from an infected mother to her fetus. Besides general malaise and fatigue, symptoms can include various muscle aches and pain.

Morgellons disease is a new and somewhat mysterious disease that can be a complication to lyme disease or other diseases, such as HIV, that compromise the autoimmune system. Besides fatigue and cognitive impairment, this disease also produces fibers in tissue and skin that cause pain and itching. The disease has often been misdiagnosed as a delusional disorder.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) consists of repetitive episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in an interrupted sleep pattern. As a result, excessive daytime fatigue can be common with this disorder. It is also common to have this disorder and not know it. Besides the fatigue and the tendency to fall asleep during the day, one sign of OSA is loud snoring—but snoring can be caused by other things than OSA another sign is waking up to find your blankets and pillow on the floor (from fitful sleep) and not have any idea how they got there. [2]

Parasites such as hookworm can infect unwary tourists through contact with contaminated soil, usually from walking barefoot in the tropics. The infection begins with itching around the area of infection and is followed by nagging gastro-intestinal complaints.

Shiftlag , similar to jetlag , can result from weekly workshift rotations that interrupt natural, biological circadian rhythms. Besides general malaise and fatigue, workers can experience poor appetite and sleep disturbance. Melatonin may be helpful in regulating sleep rhythms—see your physician for advice. [3]

Vibroacoustic Disease (VAD) , caused by loud noise (technically known as large pressure amplitude and low frequency [LPALF] noise) can contribute not just to fatigue but also to a whole host of medical problems, such as heart disease, ulcers, seizures, dizziness, and hearing loss. Psychiatric symptoms can include noise intolerance, verbal and physical aggressiveness, and even suicide . The best treatment is prevention—avoidance and hearing protection—and many unfortunate cases, such as aviation workers (even flight attendants) end in disability. [4]

H ERE ARE some other conditions that can contribute to fatigue:

Anemia , a deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood, most commonly results from inadequate iron intake, malabsorption of iron (e.g., celiac disease), or chronic bleeding (e.g., due to colon cancer). Other diseases (such as liver or bone marrow diseases) can also cause anemia.

Altitude sickness , sometimes called mountain sickness , which results from a lack of oxygen at altitude—known as hypoxia —can cause fatigue for climbers, skiers, aviators, and vacationers. The immediate treatment is simple: get to a lower altitude, take supplemental oxygen (if you have access to it), and drink plenty of water because a higher than normal breathing rate due to hypoxia can cause you to lose moisture from your lungs, leading to dehydration. If your vacation plans involve being at a high altitude, plan a gradual ascent (if possible) or allow a day or so of rest when you first arrive so that your body can get acclimated to the lower level of oxygen in the air.

Airline passengers may also experience some mild hypoxia for more information, see the Fear of Flying page on this website.


Dehydration can be one cause of fatigue that is often overlooked. In all weather—hot or cold—you should always drink plenty of water. The actual amount of water you need can vary, but a good way to check is to look at the color of your urine: if it is not a light straw color, you are probably dehydrated. So remember that unless you have kidney problems, it can be difficult drink too much water. [5] Also, be aware that caffeinated and sweetened drinks—as well as alcohol—may actually contribute to dehydration.

If you believe that any of the above conditions may apply to you, discuss them with your physician.

The daily diets of many persons have nutritional deficiencies that affect mental health. Most persons aren’t aware of this, and so, if they experience any mental health problems, they tend to believe that their lives must be dependant on psychiatric medications.

So, rather than subject yourself to harsh medications that sedate and dull your mind (and more often than not lead to substantial weight gain), consider this list of some vitamins and minerals that can help naturally with psychiatric symptoms. Be advised that the therapeutic dose may be higher than the FDA minimum daily recommendation, so a simple multivitamin tablet probably won’t have much effect on psychiatric symptoms. You might want to discuss this with a naturopath practitioner, or see the book Nutrition and Vitamin Therapy by Michael Lesser, M.D. (1980) for dosage recommendations.

Vitamin A : anxiety / insomnia / depression / fatigue / nerve pains

Vitamin B1 : depressed mood / fatigue / apathy / confusion

Niacin : anxiety / suspicion / depressed mood

Vitamin B6 : depressed mood / anxiety

Pantothenic Acid : depressed mood / fatigue / quarrelsomeness

Vitamin B12 : poor memory / poor concentration / anxiety

Folic Acid : poor memory / apathy / irritability / slow intellect

Vitamin C : anxiety / insomnia / fatigue

Vitamin D3 : anxiety / depressed mood

Calcium : anxiety / insomnia / depressed mood / poor memory

Magnesium : anxiety / insomnia / hyperactivity / premenstrual depressed mood / grouchiness / irritability

Potassium : apathy

Zinc : apathy / lethargy

Iron : poor memory / depressed mood

Medications are meant to help you feel better, but many people are not aware that one medication may interact with another one and cause new problems. At the worst, drug interactions can be fatal but they can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as confusion, memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, if you are are taking more than one medication, you should make sure that at least one physician (if you have more than one) knows everything you are taking. Some pharmacies also maintain computer records that can check for adverse drug interactions—but they won’t catch over-the-counter medications—or herbal remedies—mixed with prescription medications. So what can I say? Be an informed and responsible consumer. After all, it’s your life, and you only get one chance at it.

No advertising—no sponsor—just the simple truth . . .

1 . Berg JS, Moore J. Early menopause presenting with mood symptoms in a student aviator. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2000 71:251𤫮.

2 . Chervin RD, Guilleminault C. Obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders. Neuro Clin 1996 14:583𤱑.

3 . Caldwell JL. The use of melatonin: An information paper. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2000 71:238𤫤.

4 . Vibroacoustic disease. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 1999 70(3, Suppl).

5 . Well, actually, if you really work at it, you can put yourself into a state of water intoxication (hyposmolality/hyponatremia). But if you drink only a glass (8 oz—or 250 ml) of water per hour you would be well below the maximum recommended ½ qt/hr (500 ml/hr) in moderate temperatures and easy work load. See:
Kolka MA, Latzka WA, Montain SJ, Corr WP, O’Brien KK, Sawka MN. Effectiveness of revised fluid replacement guidelines for military training in hot weather. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2003 74:242𤫦.

Chronic Fatigue:
CFIDS —“the CFIDS Association of America is the nation’s leading charitable organization dedicated to conquering chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).”
Anemia —from THE MERCK MANUAL, Hematology and Oncology .
Lyme disease —from THE MERCK MANUAL.
Morgellons disease —the Morgellons Research Foundation is dedicated to finding the cause of an emerging infectious disease.

Drug-Herbal Interactions:
Herbal-Drug Interactions from HealthCastle

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Theoretical perspectives [ edit | edit source ]

There are a number of theories or models, seeking to integrate and explain diverse findings on mental disorders. Different disorders may require different explanations and are likely to have their own etiology (pattern of causation). The most common view is that disorders tend to result from genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stressors combining to cause patterns of dysfunction or trigger disorders (Diathesis-stress model). A practical mixture of models may often be used to explain particular issues and disorders, but the primary focus of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry has been said to be the biopsychosocial (BPS) model [How to reference and link to summary or text] - incorporating or merging together biological, psychological and social factors - although this may be commonly neglected or misapplied in practice due to being too broad or relativistic. Ώ] and, in reality, biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model, focusing on "organic" or "hardware" pathology of the brain. Psychoanalytic theories, focused on unresolved internal and relational conflicts, have been posited as overall explanations of mental disorder, although today most psychoanalytic groups are said to adhere to the biopsychosocial model and to accept an eclectic mix of subtypes of psychoanalysis. Ώ] Evolutionary psychology (or more specifically evolutionary psychopathology or psychiatry) has also been proposed as an overall theory, positing that many mental disorders involve the dysfunctional operation of mental modules adapted to ancestral physical or social environments but not necessarily to modern ones. ΐ] Α] Β] Attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context for mental disorders, which focuses on the role of early caregiver-child relationships, responses to danger, and the search for a satisfying reproductive relationship in adulthood. Γ] An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model) or a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts. Δ]


Psychological Disorders of Serial Killers

High number of crimes is being recorded every day, such as rape, murder, kidnapping and a lot more. But one thing surely caught your curiosity, the suspect of these crimes. Everybody knows or familiar about famed serial killer all throughout the history. Even if you do not know about their lives, cases, stories or even how and why they were brought into that king of situation at least you’re familiar of some of their names. This people are totally different because they committed crimes for several times.

Most Popular Serial Killers

Here are some of the most popular serial killers all over the world: Zodiac Killer, Aileen Wournos, Wayne Williams, Ottis Toole, Richard Speck, Richard Ramirez, Carl Panzram, Charles Manson, Henry Lee Lucas, Peter Kurten, Edmund Kemper, Jack Ripper, Hillside Stranglers, Ed Gein, JohnWayne Gacy, Albert Fish, Albert DeSalvo, Jeffrey Dahmer, Andrew Cunanan, Andrei Chikatilo, Ted Bundy and David Berkowitz.

The question is, why do they conduct such crime? Are they suffering from any psychological disorders? Well, Psychological Disorder affect many of people, this is a type of illness which can be found anywhere in the world. This can range into generalized Anxiety Disorder and Clinical Depression or to a Tourettes’s Disorder and Schizophrenia. Below are the psychological disorders of a serial killer:

1. Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder: The key element of this is the hyperactivity impulsivity, inattention persistent pattern which can be severe or frequent compared to observe in typical individuals in the same development level. This can be seen in social situation, occupation and academic. For serial killers case, the attention deficit is the mainly prominent. There is evidence which correlates cognitive and behavioral disjunction in adults who was diagnoses to have ADD. They were commonly recommended to professionals like psychiatrists specialized in rage and psychopath.

2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder: People who suffer from these experiences aggressive and strong impulses which they cannot resist instead they act upon to it. This results to property destruction and assaults. This is very rare which can appear at the age of 20’s.

3. Conduct Disorder: A problem which consists of persistent and repetitive behavioral pattern which involves contravention of social age of major appropriate norms and peoples basic rights.

4. Psychopath/Sociopath or all known as Antisocial Personality Disorder: There are two main characteristics, manipulation and deceit.

Common Characteristics of Serial Killers

What does serial killers profiles have in common? Take a look at the following: Resentment from society, bipolar disorder or disorganized thinking, sexually frustrated, inability to become socially accepted or sociable, daydreaming, wild imagination, over bearing parent and masturbation compulsive isolation.

Serial killer can be compare to a child who has wild imagination and lives in a fantasy they don’t have the opportunity or ability to develop like a normal person. They make their fancy as their reality, they never learned of intimacy and the live without conscience. They think as they were the most powerful and dominant, in which they don’t possess charm, remorse and they suffer from lack of insight.

To understand serial killers, you need to look into their childhood experience and assess. If you start looking in their upbringing you will surely know what kind of experience that triggers them to kill. Every persons whether killer or not, will act depending on how their life was stems from childhood. History, experiences affect your daily lives. There are some who seek medical advice once they realize that needed one, while there are some who cannot accept and face this which results to abuse to other people or even themselves.


Schizophrenia

According to WebMD, schizophrenia—a wide-ranging (and often misdiagnosed) mental illness—lists symptoms ranging from hallucination and delusions to emotional flatness and catatonia. It is one of the most common mental disorders diagnosed among criminals, especially serial killers:

    , better known as the “Son of Sam” killed six people in the 1970s claiming that his neighbor’s dog had told him to do it. He was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. , gruesome inspiration for fiction’s Norman Bates, Buffalo Bill, and Leatherface, murdered and mutilated his victims often keeping grisly “trophies.” —”the vampire of Sacramento”—killed six people in California and drank their blood. killed four people in 2004 and claimed he’d been inspired by “Nightmare on Elm Street.” , convicted of killing six people and wounding 13 including U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords in 2011, was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. , currently on trial for the 2012 “Batman murders” in Aurora, has been diagnosed with schizophrenia by 20 doctors.

There are nearly 300 mental disorders listed in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). This is a handbook used by health professionals to help identify and diagnose mental illness.

Some of the main groups of mental disorders are:

  • mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder)
  • psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia)
  • trauma-related disorders (such as post-traumatic stress disorder)

The diagnosis of mental illness can be controversial. There have been many debates in the medical community about what is and isn’t a mental illness. The definition can be influenced by our society and culture, but most mental illnesses occur across all countries and cultures. This suggests that they are not just constructed by social norms and expectations, but have a biological and psychological basis too.


Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. Obsessions are recurrent thoughts, images or impulses that are intrusive and unwanted. Compulsions are time-consuming and distressing repetitive rituals. Ttreatments include cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and medications

Paranoia is the irrational and persistent feeling that people are ‘out to get you’. Paranoia may be a symptom of conditions including paranoid personality disorder, delusional (paranoid) disorder and schizophrenia. Treatment for paranoiainclude medications and psychological support.


There are nearly 300 mental disorders listed in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). This is a handbook used by health professionals to help identify and diagnose mental illness.

Some of the main groups of mental disorders are:

  • mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder)
  • psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia)
  • trauma-related disorders (such as post-traumatic stress disorder)

The diagnosis of mental illness can be controversial. There have been many debates in the medical community about what is and isn’t a mental illness. The definition can be influenced by our society and culture, but most mental illnesses occur across all countries and cultures. This suggests that they are not just constructed by social norms and expectations, but have a biological and psychological basis too.


Schizophrenia

According to WebMD, schizophrenia—a wide-ranging (and often misdiagnosed) mental illness—lists symptoms ranging from hallucination and delusions to emotional flatness and catatonia. It is one of the most common mental disorders diagnosed among criminals, especially serial killers:

    , better known as the “Son of Sam” killed six people in the 1970s claiming that his neighbor’s dog had told him to do it. He was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. , gruesome inspiration for fiction’s Norman Bates, Buffalo Bill, and Leatherface, murdered and mutilated his victims often keeping grisly “trophies.” —”the vampire of Sacramento”—killed six people in California and drank their blood. killed four people in 2004 and claimed he’d been inspired by “Nightmare on Elm Street.” , convicted of killing six people and wounding 13 including U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords in 2011, was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. , currently on trial for the 2012 “Batman murders” in Aurora, has been diagnosed with schizophrenia by 20 doctors.

List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses - Psychology


OMETIMES , a person will experience psychological problems as the result of an underlying medical condition.

In some of these cases it doesn’t take much thought to realize what’s happening, as, for example, when a person who has had a heart attack becomes depressed. But in other cases, such as thyroid disease or pancreatic cancer, a person can have an illness and not even know it, because the only thing that seems out of order may be a feeling of depression or anxiety, perhaps in conjunction with vague bodily pain. Only a competent investigation into the cause of the psychological symptoms will lead to a discovery of the medical condition.

I’ve presented the information that follows in the hope that you or someone you know will take nothing for granted in regard to psychology. For your own sake, if you ever feel emotionally out of order, get a complete medical check-up before trying anything else. Moreover, if you ever decide to start psychotherapy, and if, in the first sessions, your psychotherapist doesn’t ask some direct questions about your medical condition, then find another psychotherapist—quick.

If you don’t know what a particular medical term below means, copy the term and paste it into a search engine search window.


Anxiety / Panic Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, pheochromocytoma, hypoglycemia, hyperadrenocorticism)

cardiovascular conditions (such as congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, arrhythmia)

respiratory conditions (such as pulmonary disease, pneumonia, hyperventilation)

metabolic conditions (such as vitamin deficiency, porphyria)

neurological conditions (such as epilepsy, neoplasms, vestibular dysfunction, encephalitis)


Impulse-Control Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

episodes of unconsciousness

febrile seizures in childhood


Mood Symptoms can result from a variety of conditions, such as

degenerative neurological conditions (such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease)

cerebrovascular disease (such as stroke)

metabolic conditions (such as vitamin deficiency e.g. vitamin D3)

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

autoimmune conditions (such as systemic lupus erythematosus)

viral or other infections (such as hepatitis, mononucleosis, HIV)

certain cancers (such as carcinoma of the pancreas)

environmental factors (such as EMF radiation)


Personality Changes can result from a variety of conditions, such as

central nervous system neoplasms

infectious conditions with central nervous system involvement (such as HIV)

endocrine conditions (such as hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

autoimmune conditions with central nervous system involvement (such as systemic lupus erythematosus)


Sexual Dysfunction can result from a variety of conditions, such as

neurological conditions (such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord lesions, neuropathy, temporal lobe lesions)

endocrine conditions (such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadal states, pituitary dysfunction)


Sleep Disorders can result from a variety of conditions, such as

degenerative neurological illnesses (such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease)

endocrine conditions (such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism)

viral and bacterial infections

coughing or breathing problems related to respiratory conditions (such as chronic bronchitis, asthma)

pain from musculoskeletal disease (rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia)

Chronic Fatigue itself, usually called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), used to be called neurasthenia . The syndrome is characterized by a wide variety of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, muscle and joint pain, headache, memory and concentration difficulties, and difficulty sleeping. No one has yet found a single cause for this syndrome in fact, current research reveals that CFS is a complex medical disorder with multiple causation. If CFS is diagnosed early, new medical treatments can promote improvement.

A person who is chronically fatigued can grow to become depressed simply over feeling so miserable so much of the time. Therefore, one form of treatment can also be psychological: learning how to cope with the frustration of symptoms that are real and physical but have a mysterious cause and no single cure. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can help you identify and heal emotional conflicts from the past so that unconscious resentments do not “feed” the disease. Cognitive-behavioral treatment, especially hypnosis and guided imagery, can help you learn mental qualities such as perseverance and relaxed concentration so that you do not succumb to feelings of panic and depression.

S OMETIMES other medical conditions that can cause generalized, chronic malaise are misdiagnosed as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The following (in alphabetical order) are examples:


Coeliac (or celiac) disease , is a disorder that primarily affects the small intestine. Symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhea and abdominal distention loss of appetite and inability to gain weight chronic fatigue dermatitis and mental distractibility or confusion. Furthermore, in childhood, symptoms can include growth delay or pubertal delay. The disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, and treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet.

Early Menopause can cause symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, irritability, mood instability, anxiety, and frequent crying episodes. In young women (as young as 30), when menopause is not expected, these symptoms can also be misdiagnosed as depression. [1]

Hypothyroidism , a condition caused by a thyroid secretion deficiency, is a common endocrine disorder. Symptoms can include weakness, dry skin/hair, lethargy, forgetfulness, depression, apathy, and constipation. If apathy is a symptom, the tendency to minimize complaints can delay diagnosis. Hypothyroidism can be treated successfully with medication.

Lyme disease can result from a tick bite, generally from a deer tick. You might know that you’ve been bitten if you find the tick on your skin or if a red patch on the skin develops following the bite. The redness does not always develop, however, so some persons never realize that they have been bitten. The disease can also be passed from an infected mother to her fetus. Besides general malaise and fatigue, symptoms can include various muscle aches and pain.

Morgellons disease is a new and somewhat mysterious disease that can be a complication to lyme disease or other diseases, such as HIV, that compromise the autoimmune system. Besides fatigue and cognitive impairment, this disease also produces fibers in tissue and skin that cause pain and itching. The disease has often been misdiagnosed as a delusional disorder.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) consists of repetitive episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in an interrupted sleep pattern. As a result, excessive daytime fatigue can be common with this disorder. It is also common to have this disorder and not know it. Besides the fatigue and the tendency to fall asleep during the day, one sign of OSA is loud snoring—but snoring can be caused by other things than OSA another sign is waking up to find your blankets and pillow on the floor (from fitful sleep) and not have any idea how they got there. [2]

Parasites such as hookworm can infect unwary tourists through contact with contaminated soil, usually from walking barefoot in the tropics. The infection begins with itching around the area of infection and is followed by nagging gastro-intestinal complaints.

Shiftlag , similar to jetlag , can result from weekly workshift rotations that interrupt natural, biological circadian rhythms. Besides general malaise and fatigue, workers can experience poor appetite and sleep disturbance. Melatonin may be helpful in regulating sleep rhythms—see your physician for advice. [3]

Vibroacoustic Disease (VAD) , caused by loud noise (technically known as large pressure amplitude and low frequency [LPALF] noise) can contribute not just to fatigue but also to a whole host of medical problems, such as heart disease, ulcers, seizures, dizziness, and hearing loss. Psychiatric symptoms can include noise intolerance, verbal and physical aggressiveness, and even suicide . The best treatment is prevention—avoidance and hearing protection—and many unfortunate cases, such as aviation workers (even flight attendants) end in disability. [4]

H ERE ARE some other conditions that can contribute to fatigue:

Anemia , a deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood, most commonly results from inadequate iron intake, malabsorption of iron (e.g., celiac disease), or chronic bleeding (e.g., due to colon cancer). Other diseases (such as liver or bone marrow diseases) can also cause anemia.

Altitude sickness , sometimes called mountain sickness , which results from a lack of oxygen at altitude—known as hypoxia —can cause fatigue for climbers, skiers, aviators, and vacationers. The immediate treatment is simple: get to a lower altitude, take supplemental oxygen (if you have access to it), and drink plenty of water because a higher than normal breathing rate due to hypoxia can cause you to lose moisture from your lungs, leading to dehydration. If your vacation plans involve being at a high altitude, plan a gradual ascent (if possible) or allow a day or so of rest when you first arrive so that your body can get acclimated to the lower level of oxygen in the air.

Airline passengers may also experience some mild hypoxia for more information, see the Fear of Flying page on this website.


Dehydration can be one cause of fatigue that is often overlooked. In all weather—hot or cold—you should always drink plenty of water. The actual amount of water you need can vary, but a good way to check is to look at the color of your urine: if it is not a light straw color, you are probably dehydrated. So remember that unless you have kidney problems, it can be difficult drink too much water. [5] Also, be aware that caffeinated and sweetened drinks—as well as alcohol—may actually contribute to dehydration.

If you believe that any of the above conditions may apply to you, discuss them with your physician.

The daily diets of many persons have nutritional deficiencies that affect mental health. Most persons aren’t aware of this, and so, if they experience any mental health problems, they tend to believe that their lives must be dependant on psychiatric medications.

So, rather than subject yourself to harsh medications that sedate and dull your mind (and more often than not lead to substantial weight gain), consider this list of some vitamins and minerals that can help naturally with psychiatric symptoms. Be advised that the therapeutic dose may be higher than the FDA minimum daily recommendation, so a simple multivitamin tablet probably won’t have much effect on psychiatric symptoms. You might want to discuss this with a naturopath practitioner, or see the book Nutrition and Vitamin Therapy by Michael Lesser, M.D. (1980) for dosage recommendations.

Vitamin A : anxiety / insomnia / depression / fatigue / nerve pains

Vitamin B1 : depressed mood / fatigue / apathy / confusion

Niacin : anxiety / suspicion / depressed mood

Vitamin B6 : depressed mood / anxiety

Pantothenic Acid : depressed mood / fatigue / quarrelsomeness

Vitamin B12 : poor memory / poor concentration / anxiety

Folic Acid : poor memory / apathy / irritability / slow intellect

Vitamin C : anxiety / insomnia / fatigue

Vitamin D3 : anxiety / depressed mood

Calcium : anxiety / insomnia / depressed mood / poor memory

Magnesium : anxiety / insomnia / hyperactivity / premenstrual depressed mood / grouchiness / irritability

Potassium : apathy

Zinc : apathy / lethargy

Iron : poor memory / depressed mood

Medications are meant to help you feel better, but many people are not aware that one medication may interact with another one and cause new problems. At the worst, drug interactions can be fatal but they can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as confusion, memory impairment, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, if you are are taking more than one medication, you should make sure that at least one physician (if you have more than one) knows everything you are taking. Some pharmacies also maintain computer records that can check for adverse drug interactions—but they won’t catch over-the-counter medications—or herbal remedies—mixed with prescription medications. So what can I say? Be an informed and responsible consumer. After all, it’s your life, and you only get one chance at it.

No advertising—no sponsor—just the simple truth . . .

1 . Berg JS, Moore J. Early menopause presenting with mood symptoms in a student aviator. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2000 71:251𤫮.

2 . Chervin RD, Guilleminault C. Obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders. Neuro Clin 1996 14:583𤱑.

3 . Caldwell JL. The use of melatonin: An information paper. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2000 71:238𤫤.

4 . Vibroacoustic disease. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 1999 70(3, Suppl).

5 . Well, actually, if you really work at it, you can put yourself into a state of water intoxication (hyposmolality/hyponatremia). But if you drink only a glass (8 oz—or 250 ml) of water per hour you would be well below the maximum recommended ½ qt/hr (500 ml/hr) in moderate temperatures and easy work load. See:
Kolka MA, Latzka WA, Montain SJ, Corr WP, O’Brien KK, Sawka MN. Effectiveness of revised fluid replacement guidelines for military training in hot weather. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 2003 74:242𤫦.

Chronic Fatigue:
CFIDS —“the CFIDS Association of America is the nation’s leading charitable organization dedicated to conquering chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).”
Anemia —from THE MERCK MANUAL, Hematology and Oncology .
Lyme disease —from THE MERCK MANUAL.
Morgellons disease —the Morgellons Research Foundation is dedicated to finding the cause of an emerging infectious disease.

Drug-Herbal Interactions:
Herbal-Drug Interactions from HealthCastle

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Psychology is a complex subject, and many issues are interrelated. And so, even though you may find a topic of interest on one particular page, an exploration of the other pages will deepen your understanding of the human mind and heart.

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Psychological Disorders of Serial Killers

High number of crimes is being recorded every day, such as rape, murder, kidnapping and a lot more. But one thing surely caught your curiosity, the suspect of these crimes. Everybody knows or familiar about famed serial killer all throughout the history. Even if you do not know about their lives, cases, stories or even how and why they were brought into that king of situation at least you’re familiar of some of their names. This people are totally different because they committed crimes for several times.

Most Popular Serial Killers

Here are some of the most popular serial killers all over the world: Zodiac Killer, Aileen Wournos, Wayne Williams, Ottis Toole, Richard Speck, Richard Ramirez, Carl Panzram, Charles Manson, Henry Lee Lucas, Peter Kurten, Edmund Kemper, Jack Ripper, Hillside Stranglers, Ed Gein, JohnWayne Gacy, Albert Fish, Albert DeSalvo, Jeffrey Dahmer, Andrew Cunanan, Andrei Chikatilo, Ted Bundy and David Berkowitz.

The question is, why do they conduct such crime? Are they suffering from any psychological disorders? Well, Psychological Disorder affect many of people, this is a type of illness which can be found anywhere in the world. This can range into generalized Anxiety Disorder and Clinical Depression or to a Tourettes’s Disorder and Schizophrenia. Below are the psychological disorders of a serial killer:

1. Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder: The key element of this is the hyperactivity impulsivity, inattention persistent pattern which can be severe or frequent compared to observe in typical individuals in the same development level. This can be seen in social situation, occupation and academic. For serial killers case, the attention deficit is the mainly prominent. There is evidence which correlates cognitive and behavioral disjunction in adults who was diagnoses to have ADD. They were commonly recommended to professionals like psychiatrists specialized in rage and psychopath.

2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder: People who suffer from these experiences aggressive and strong impulses which they cannot resist instead they act upon to it. This results to property destruction and assaults. This is very rare which can appear at the age of 20’s.

3. Conduct Disorder: A problem which consists of persistent and repetitive behavioral pattern which involves contravention of social age of major appropriate norms and peoples basic rights.

4. Psychopath/Sociopath or all known as Antisocial Personality Disorder: There are two main characteristics, manipulation and deceit.

Common Characteristics of Serial Killers

What does serial killers profiles have in common? Take a look at the following: Resentment from society, bipolar disorder or disorganized thinking, sexually frustrated, inability to become socially accepted or sociable, daydreaming, wild imagination, over bearing parent and masturbation compulsive isolation.

Serial killer can be compare to a child who has wild imagination and lives in a fantasy they don’t have the opportunity or ability to develop like a normal person. They make their fancy as their reality, they never learned of intimacy and the live without conscience. They think as they were the most powerful and dominant, in which they don’t possess charm, remorse and they suffer from lack of insight.

To understand serial killers, you need to look into their childhood experience and assess. If you start looking in their upbringing you will surely know what kind of experience that triggers them to kill. Every persons whether killer or not, will act depending on how their life was stems from childhood. History, experiences affect your daily lives. There are some who seek medical advice once they realize that needed one, while there are some who cannot accept and face this which results to abuse to other people or even themselves.


Theoretical perspectives [ edit | edit source ]

There are a number of theories or models, seeking to integrate and explain diverse findings on mental disorders. Different disorders may require different explanations and are likely to have their own etiology (pattern of causation). The most common view is that disorders tend to result from genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stressors combining to cause patterns of dysfunction or trigger disorders (Diathesis-stress model). A practical mixture of models may often be used to explain particular issues and disorders, but the primary focus of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry has been said to be the biopsychosocial (BPS) model [How to reference and link to summary or text] - incorporating or merging together biological, psychological and social factors - although this may be commonly neglected or misapplied in practice due to being too broad or relativistic. Ώ] and, in reality, biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model, focusing on "organic" or "hardware" pathology of the brain. Psychoanalytic theories, focused on unresolved internal and relational conflicts, have been posited as overall explanations of mental disorder, although today most psychoanalytic groups are said to adhere to the biopsychosocial model and to accept an eclectic mix of subtypes of psychoanalysis. Ώ] Evolutionary psychology (or more specifically evolutionary psychopathology or psychiatry) has also been proposed as an overall theory, positing that many mental disorders involve the dysfunctional operation of mental modules adapted to ancestral physical or social environments but not necessarily to modern ones. ΐ] Α] Β] Attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context for mental disorders, which focuses on the role of early caregiver-child relationships, responses to danger, and the search for a satisfying reproductive relationship in adulthood. Γ] An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model) or a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts. Δ]


List of psychological conditions, disorders and illnesses - Psychology

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What is psychopathology?

Although it is often used, the term "mental illnesses" is considered incorrect from a semantic point of view, since the focus of the word "disease" is strictly preferred. Similarly, the word "psychopathology" refers to a medical-inspired model of clinical psychology. The most used concept in clinical psychology is that of "mental disorders," although many people also consider this a derogatory term and the same can be said of "psychopathology." Umbrella terms such as "psychological problems" are often used to talk about mental disorders without focusing on the actual disease.

When we talk about psychopathology or mental disorders we are referring to an extensive set of problems related to behavior, cognitive ability, and emotions. Often, the causes are not physical (such as medical illnesses) nor do patients experience psychological symptoms. This is the case of psychoses, which have a clear biological foundation but are usually analyzed and treated as mental rather than medical disorders.

The most popular point of view in current clinical psychology defines mental disorders as problems that significantly affect the person, their environment or other individuals in different ways. Thus, for example, depression can lead to social isolation and even suicide, while antisocial behavior disorders often cause legal problems to the affected people and physical or material damage to others.

In practice, however, the terminology used is not as relevant as the final influence of the clinical professional responsible for assisting the lives of people suffering from psychological problems. The bottom line is that labeling people with mental disorders as being "ill" limits the positive change they can experience in a discipline in which collaboration and empathy with the patient are vital.


Psychological Illnesses

In other instances, the most obvious cause for a mental illness lies in the life-history of a patient. Abuse, insecurity, trauma, even simple confusions that have become entirely integrated into the mental and emotional system of a patient are best dealt with primarily through counseling and behavioral therapy, only supplemented by medical treatment to alleviate stress and anxiety, or depression. When the underlying causes of mental illness aren’t medical, they can best be compared to faulty data fed into a computer, or bad programming. No matter how the glitch in the mental patterns arrived, the only way to deal with the problem is to locate where the errors are, and fix them with better data and better self-programming.

This is usually accomplished through personal therapy, behavioral therapy, and coaching. These methods can help carry a patient through an examination of his or her life, with special attention given to experiences, thoughts, and assumptions that contribute to poor mental health. Once a patient finds the issues of their life with the help of a counselor, new ways of thinking and behaving are worked out and put into practice.