In Criminology, discipline related to Psychology, Psychiatry, History, Law and other sciences, there is always a victim of the crime committed. What happens is that we tend to focus more on the study of the criminal and the case than on the victim, resigning it many times to a second or even third level, but there are many things that we should take into account.
The study of the victims
We always estimate and prefer that these things do not happen and that they are mild, and we always like to think and prefer that this person be unharmed and alive, not damaged, in poor condition or dead.
Fredric Wertham was the first to study the victims, although more emphasis was put on since the 1930s. It's about something based on empiricism and evidence of the facts, making hypotheses that allow us to find out what happened. The victim is defined as the person or persons (and related, since it is something that deteriorates the quality of life and discomfort of a group of people) who has suffered physical, psychological, emotional, or have been attacked and their rights have remained diminished for violating the legislation, and much more.
The techniques used are the reality observation, study, case analysis interviews and case follow-up by professionals Assistance programs are also very important and sometimes necessary, since living in protected floors, conducting witness programs and creating centers for them, and informing and guiding is something that should be taken into account, both for the individual and for society and the country in general.
Types of victims
We often forget that there are different types of victims, since they may have been innocent randomly chosen before an event (such as an explosion or kidnapping in the supermarket), or intentionally chosen (the murder of the loving couple) or even victims who have provoked the reaction of the alleged criminal (a sexual abuser who was shot by a police officer when he rescued the victim).
We must always take into account the Mendelshon scale, which bases the correlation between victim and offender, may be May, minor or sometimes the same. Some of them are:
- The ideal or innocent victim that he has done absolutely nothing to be the victim of the criminal situation he has lived, such as a customer of the supermarket they assault, or a prostitute who is raped only by the fact of having such a profession.
- The victim of minor guilt or ignorance, in which the victim has a certain responsibility for performing an unreflective act, such as an illegal abortion in which there are negative consequences on women.
- The guilty victim, as would be the case of couples who commit suicide having agreed to the "Romeo and Juliet", Muslim warriors who die for Allah because of religion, people who take euthanasia for having an incurable disease, etc.
- The victim more guilty than the offender, which can be both who provokes to do an action or the one who controls it, as the case of the married woman who encourages her lover to murder her husband, but at some point, she ends up being a victim of the criminal process as well.
- Victim more guilty than the criminal or who is the only one guilty, such as the previously infringing victim, who has been initially guilty of some type of crime and is acquitted, which is why another person (usually the initial victim) claims his own justice. Also victims who may have psychiatric problems of character and / or behavior. They can be mythomaniac, insane, etc.
We must also be very careful with the false victims, who pretend to be right and try to find a judicial error in their favor, denouncing facts caused by themselves in order to get out. Many times they are immature people or with psychiatric or mental health problems, since, in my professional and personal opinion, people considered normal do not usually waste their time doing those things.
What is true is that there are usually traumatic consequences for victims, even in the investigation process, by reliving the situation. Many times there are usually cases that are studied or investigated at the time, since it may have been even 5 years after the crime and be when the investigation process is opened, although medical attention or in case of detention does act instantly. On other occasions, victims of abuse again undergo similar situations by third parties, leaving many people and situations vulnerable, such as being addicted or drug addicted.